Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge – Day 13

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QUESTIONS ASKED -DAY 13 (02/08/2013)

1) In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

2)India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

RESPONSES:

  1. rahul aggarwal
    3 Votes

    1)India has played a significant role in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of afghanistan .India’s commitment is reflected in the strategic partnership aggrement signed in 2011.Also India’s development assistance program now stands at around US $2 billion making India the 5th largest bilateral donor in Afghanistan.

    Afghanistan holds importance for India because of its strategic location, peace and stability in Afghanistan could ensure peace in entire south asia.
    India being a victim of terrorism and holding doubtful relations with Pakistan would like to ensure that terrorist outfits donot get a chance to grow again in afghanistan.

    Afghanistan can also become transportation hub connecting south asia with central and west asia.

    The strategy of India in afghanistan after US exit should be of continuous engagement with afghan government and people.

    India should support all the efforts in the direction to strengthen democracy and to establish government institutions in Afghanistan.

    India should keep engaging with immediate neighbour’s of Afghanistan like Iran and Tajikistan on this issue as they can prove a great help to maintain stability in afghanistan.Like India can get access to afghanistan through alternative route(bypassing pakistan) through Chahbahar port of Iran.

    India should ensure that international community donot lose its focus on development process in Afghanistan after US exit.

    Thus India can maintain good relations with afghanistan which would be beneficial for both the countries.

  2. Nirmal Singh
    4 Votes

    1.The decision of US to withdraw its armed forces has aroused interest of policy makers.India in post 2014 scenario needs a comprehensive strategy considering its stake in Afghanistan
    First,India has huge strategic interests in Afghanistan.The recent signing of strategic partnership agreement is a welcome step.Such steps should be reinforced by building capacity through training of afghani soldiers.Further India need to involve international communities through institution like ADB,UN and countries like China,Russia so as to develop restrain for Pakistan through its involvement with Taliban through Al Qaeda
    as terrorism is global problem.
    Second,the economic stakes are high for India considering the fact that it has huge investments and projects like TAPI.India need to engage china as both stakes in investment are vulnerable due to lack of security.This needs to be complemented by building trade relations with Afghanistan
    Third there is need for building democracy,which is in nascent stage.This requires building parliamentary institutional setup ,India can play a constructive role in this using its experience with democracy.
    Lastly the need for development social infrastructure cannot be overstated as it underpins all development and a important tool to resurgence of Taliban
    The primary role of India should be a facilitation not control unlike happened in Nepal and Bangladesh.This demands respect for sovereignty.It will be win-win situation for both countries in the long run

  3. 1 Vote

    Q. in your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.
    Ans
    Afghanistan and India share strategic and historical ties. India has a close collaboration with Afghanistan on economic, political and security front. Afghanistan has been ravaged by a decade long war between US forces and Taliban before instatement of a democratic government five years ago. This led to renewed ties between India and Afghanistan.
    The recent increased interaction between both should be seen in light of US decision to withdraw its troops post 2014. India is required to take a lead role in reconciliation of Afganistan and to build its capability because peace and tranquility in Afganistan is necessary for a secure and prosperous region. India shall provide defense assistance in the form of training to Afghan’s military personnel and closely collaborate on military equipment transfer as it can be used to avert any rebellion by Taliban and contain Pakistan and its anti Indian elements.
    On economic side, Indian companies have invested in mining process and India must extend full support for the development of infrastructure through its line of credit. That will enable the Afghan government to provide employment to its vagabond youth and wean away the hold of anti state elements. TAPI pipeline is necessary for energy starved Indian economy and a stable regime in Afghanistan is necessary for this.
    On social front, India would do well to provide education and health care facilities besides creating a skilled labour force through its ITEC programme. India shall also closely collaborate for the acceleration of democracy and strengthening the political dynamics of the country.
    All this requires a coordinated, collaborative, participative approach with afganistan to promote development, strengthen defense capability and create a social base which is literate, healthy and skilled. It will be a win-win situation for both.

  4. 1 Vote

    Q. India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.
    Ans
    India is facing many challenges to its internal and external security in the form of terrorism, insurgency, naxalism and cyber security threats etc. Terrorism and insurgency is the most potent threat of these as they had been instrumental in nipping the democratic governments in bud and destroying the social and economic fabric of the countries.
    The causes of terrorism are mostly inconclusive though researches have pointed out that it may be due to social and political injustice, dehumanization, nationalism and separatism etc. These groups whether terrorist or insurgent enjoys ideological, religious or cultural etc affiliations. These threads are needed to be faced with iron hand as they stigmatize the people, disrupt normal life and destabilize the government, violate human rights and impede upon the freedom of people.
    The recent terrorist attacks in India pointed out the sad state of affairs in tackling such problems. The main reason is the disjunction between intelligence agencies and local police. There is lack of information sharing and swift action and this deficit is used by terrorist to carry out their operation. Further India has a long boundary and porous borders and there is no close collaboration in averting terrorism and insurgency with neighbouring country except with Bangladesh. The military operation requires support from local people and they must be bought into confidence so that anti national elements do not find a hedge but because of certain draconian laws like AFSPA there is gross human rights violations and illicit killing which only ignite separatist tendencies. India has failed on most of fronts like curbing black money which are used to fund terrorist activities and providing alternative avenues like employment for youths so that they do not take up arms.
    Lack of institutional mechanism like NCTC, close collaboration between centre and state and harmonization between intelligence agencies and local police have render the efforts of the government ineffective.

  5. lakshmi prasanna
    1 Vote

    1.India’s post 2014 Afghanistan policy depends upon on the status of the country. The vulnerable issues of Afghanistan include inter-ethnic disharmony, pervasive culture of militancy, radicalization, warlordism, rampant corruption, narcotic trafficking, and growing public apathy. On other hand it is trying level best for attaining development which is proved by: girls going to school, security situation is not bad, developmental activities by the aid of international community. Security forces are able to defend from Taliban to some extent. But the post 2014 situations may alter. US may leave some of its forces in afghan, how far the afghan security will be successful in suppressing Taliban activities draws importance, will western countries continue to aid, political changes that may occur, Taliban Pakistan relations, drug trafficking etc. Despite of all these countries like Russia china and Iran are coming front to negotiate with Afghanistan in post 2014. Expecting optimistic conditions India can drive its policy towards Afghanistan in the fields like infrastructure and agriculture development, institutional building, and health care education democratization etc. If the security situation worsens it is better to take part in selective programme’s without involving in its political changes and often making dialogue with government regarding security.

  6. riddhu
    3 Votes

    Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    India has played a constructive role in promoting economic interaction with Afghanistan, both bilaterally and under the auspices of the Heart of Asia grouping of regional countries. It has provided substantial development assistance, invested in a large number of small projects and a few large-scale infrastructure projects and has provided training to the Afghan army and along with China has won tenders for mining operations .India’s recent decision to renovate Chabahar Port in Iran is a demonstration of its long-term commitment here. Most important is India’s security concerns are related to developments here.

    There are concerned about Afghanistan’s trajectory from 2014, when Western forces are reduced and elections are held. A few recent developments are disturbing major of them are clashes along the Durand Line appear to have intensified recently, and its relationship with Pakistan is strained again and USA’s recent tilting towards engaging Talibans in peace process and treating it on equal footing with democratically elected government which both India and Russia have vehemently opposed. So, India apart from continuing aid must insist on multiparty involvement in the issue and strongly involve other SCO members along with Russia and China who are also wary of fundamentalism here.

    • Anjali Motghare
      Rate This Response!

      riddhu questions asks what should be India’s role post US exit, u completely missed that.

  7. DINESH PATIL
    2 Votes

    2) India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.
    ANSWER
    The recent attack on the Army convoy by militants in Srinagar, serial bomb blasts in Bodh Gaya, the brutal attack by CPI (Maoists) in Chhattisgarh’s Bastar District, and double bomb blast in Hyderabad were attacks on our democratic values and freedom to participate in economic, social and political activities.

    The causes of terrorism and insurgencies can be related to social, historical, cultural, religious, economic, and psychological aspects. some of the important causes are:
    (A)Social: Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic, linguistic, religious or cultural groups, social alienation, racial unrest or ethnical divisions, the differences based on caste, color, place and sex.
    (B)Political: Lack of equality, lack of political freedom, demands of autonomy, Suppressing a community, political exploitation and rule without representation.
    (C)Economic: the absence of land reforms, unemployment, exploitation of landless laborers, poverty and inequality, lack of education etc
    (D)Religious: misinterpretation of the religious ideologies and hate speeches by religious people, and discrimination and differences between various religions often results in real and perceived instances of misunderstanding and injustices.

    Steps taken by government to tackle terrorism and insurgencies are:
    1.Enactment of laws such as, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment (UAPA) Act and Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) for effective prevention of unlawful activities against the integrity and sovereignty of India.
    2.The Minister for Rural Development recently launched a new skill development scheme called “Roshni” for rural youth from 24 most critical left-wing extremism (LWE) affected districts. This initiative aims at skilling and placement of fifty thousand youth.
    3. Centralized monitoring System (CMS) is the new surveillance project which helps government to access phone conversations, SMS, mails etc to prevent possible attacks.
    4.The employment generation scheme like “UDAAN” and “HIMAYAT” in the State of J&K.
    5.Sharing of intelligence through close and effective co-ordination among Central and State level agencies.
    6. Modernization of State Police Forces.
    7.Creation of four regional hubs (Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai and Kolkata) of National Security Guards (NSG) to cover the whole country.
    8.National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID envisaged to link data bases of several departments and ministry for creating actionable intelligence to combat terrorism.
    9.The Central Govt. is continuously assisting the North Eastern States by deploying Central Armed Police Forces to assist the State Police in their counter insurgency operations.

    In conclusion, government may not be fully successful in preventing terrorist activities, as a responsible citizen we can protect our country by not indulging in false propagation against others, by helping police with the information on unlawful activities and abiding by the rule of land to maintain necessary law and order. Thus, protecting and preventing our country from terrorism and insurgencies.

    • 1 Vote

      Hi dinesh,
      Your answer has crossed the word limit to the extent of 450 words. the question does not require you to enumerate steps taken by the government but a critical analysis and effectiveness of those steps

    • 1 Vote

      Your answer is completely factual. When you are asked to analyze, you should give your views. Here, you should analyze what are the basic causes of terrorism, insurgency and why government’s measure are ineffective so far. And as Sahil pointed out, you have actually answered in more than double the word limit.

      • DINESH PATIL
        1 Vote

        Thank you for the valuable suggestions, will surely incorporate these in my future answers.

  8. lakshmi prasanna
    2 Votes

    2. India is fighting war on many fronts against its external and internal security threats. Ethnic and religious causes, forcible inclusion of princely states, failure of government to control large scale immigrants, underdevelopment of a region for a longer period and disaffection towards government caused left wing extremism insurgency, and terrorism,
    Left wing extremism objective is to seize power of state through armed forces. They protest infrastructure development and further attract people saying states inability to develop. State response to curb LWE was not appropriate; they deployed forces against naxals but did not educate people and failed to allot rehabilitation packages to make them economically strong.
    North east insurgency rooted at the times of British who used it as a buffer zone and developed Christianity and modern education. After independence people denied merging them into India feeling that they are separate racial group. Resulted ethnic insurgency and anti New Delhi. Strategy used was punishing them, forcible reallocation and military operation. Failed to develop secured civilization.
    Being a Hindu majority nation at the time of independence people of J&K felt they will be suppressed and demanded for independence. On denying Muslim organizations took to terrorism. State did not address their insecure feeling. Delayed responses concreted into communal riots.
    Now at least state should come up with comprehensive strategy which makes the people strong minded unity and integrity as Indians. Also it should convert nation to a stable and secured.

    • 3 Votes

      Hi lakshmi,
      Your causes are in a very lucid way and nicely written but i think You overlooked the second part which demands you to analyse the effectiveness of government in tackling these menace.

    • 1 Vote

      You should first differentiate between terrorism and insurgency. Mention few examples of each. Then analyze reasons for their birth and perpetuation. Lastly analyze why government’s strategy is not so effective.

      You have content but structure is missing.

      • lakshmi prasanna
        Rate This Response!

        thanks sir, I’ll note. can u suggest about the content of first answer to pls.

    • Anjali Motghare
      1 Vote

      Laxmi very good points about insurgency I learned from you, u missed terrorism.

  9. Biman Ghosh
    2 Votes

    1) In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss

    The proposed US led NATO force’s exit in 2014 created much anxiety over the foreign policies of various countries including India, on Afghanistan.In addition,the recent developments in Afghan politics,like the reopening of Taliban office in Doha,American inclination towards Taliban,etc. produced enough reasons to make India wary.
    India has invested almost 4 billion US$ in Afghanistan.Its one of the biggest investments,that has been done by any country in Afghanistan.With such a huge investment in Afghanistan Indian diplomats have no options but to ensure the safety of investments,which is only visible if the country gets stable internally and politically.

    On the other hand,the Taliban also cleared its intentions by naming its office as “Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan”,to play a substantial role in Afghan politics in post US exit scenario.If somehow the Taliban comes to power after 2014,it would be worse condition for India to continue its endeavors to bring prosperity and peace in that country.in fact, it will be a setback for Indian diplomacy over Afghanistan.Thus,India’s ultimate goal should be to keep Taliban away at arm’s length from Afghan politics.

    As India has advocated hard for democracy in Afghanistan.India should keep this policy on while addressing Afghanistan issue in international domain. Further, India should also consult With US and various international organisations,like UN,NATO,world bank,etc for help over building of a solid democracy government in Afghanistan. India can also tie-up with China,also a major investor in Afghanistan, over securities concerns on ongoing Projects.India should also make efforts to train Afghan securities forces as much as possible so that Afghan forces be able to counter Taliban attacks.The new elected govt. in Pakistan also seems as a great ray of hope,if India could encash this opportunity.India should press hard to Pakistan for stop giving a platform to Taliban in turn of extending bilateral ties.India through extending solidarity with Iran, also can ensure the declination of Taliban roots in Afghanistan.India should play play multi- dimension diplomacy to be ensure the safety of Indian investments and Afghan interests.Indian diplomats should come up with massive diplomatic proposals to various neighbors of Afghanistan and ofcourse have to maintain the International co-opration over Afghanistan issue.

    • 1 Vote

      355 words. You have mentioned valid points but you could have pruned many of them. For eg, mention of Taliban could have been done in 1-2 sentences.

      It is $2 Billion so far. Also, more than UN, NATO,role regional organizations must be emphasized.

      • Biman Ghosh
        1 Vote

        sir,perhaps answering questions within the given word limit a major problem we r facing..they need introduction as well as subject content with an impressive conclusions..tough task….need a lot of practice..thanks for ur valuable inputs..

  10. Kirthi
    3 Votes

    Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    In the aftermath of US exit, a peaceful and stable afghanisatan is is everyone’s interests and India should strive to achieve this.
    Any extremism in Afghanistan will have repercussion in Russia, china, India and is a threat to the region. It will lead to intensification of Uighur riots in xinjiang province which is not in interest of china. India must work for the future development in afghanisatan which must be afghan owned and afghan led within the framework of SCO shanghai cooperation organization of which India, afghanisatan and Pakistan are observers.

    India should provide valuable guidance in the process of democracy and institutions buiding, India should take special steps to promte investments in afghan ( incentives to investors etc.), hasten the process of TAPI pipeline from which it will benefit, north south corridor, provide employment to the youth through investments.
    To prevent subversive elements in Pakistan from attaining strategic depth against India in Afghanistan, India must encourage civilian control over military in pak, work within SCO, and promote trade in the region and integrate all the economies in the region which will incentivize everyone and afghan because of its presence in geostratefic area will benefit from trade routes and transit fee,while at the same time participating in global efforts to mitigate terrorism.

    Development in Afghanistan is the only way to ensure Long lasting peace and india has enormous good will in afghan, india must promote trade in the region that hardwire economies in the region incentivizing everyone in afghan s development.

    • Kirthi
      1 Vote

      Should have included protecting indian investment, training afghan forces and a strict action against narcotic trafficking that funds subversive elements.

      • 1 Vote

        you have already written more. very good answer – first two paragraphs sum up whole answer. Some repetitions are there. Also, question is not just asking what India should do – you should also say what it should not do.

  11. Kirthi
    2 Votes

    India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

    India is adversely affected by terrorism, Naxalism, regionalism ,communalism, secessionist movements etc. The reasons for terrorism are historical and failure of INC to effectively develop, propagate and ingrain in minds of people an effective critique of communalism that ultimately led to communalization of people and partition 1947, and India had been left with 500 odd independent princely states in its territory. Ineffective handling of Kashmir issue by UN, Pakistan claiming kashmir by nature of Muslim majority to be its own etc. Naxalism has been influence Mao Zedong ideology, to deal with inequality in society by violence and overthrow of govt.. and redistribute land etc. which has attracted support of tribals, peasants, students etc. who believed it can better their life.

    The apparatus against terrorism is weak evident from Mumbai attacks, where is no coordination between intelligence and police departments. The NCTC is an effective solution that has intelliigence gathering As well as operational responsibilities. Intelligence gathering is a senstitive activity and coordination between central intelligence agencies (RAW,IB) and police hasn’t been effective and explais why it might assume some functions of state police,and to allay state fears, inclusion of DIG in standing council is a good step, and NCTC to be continued under IB( has intelliigence data over decades) and not to rebuild it separately. The proposed central monitoring system should be backed by privacy laws, or like in UK have bipartisan parliamentary oversight by committee and should be held accountable for their misdeeds to them and their expenditure, functionaries etc be controlled by parliamentary committee.( not just executive )

    The only alternative to Naxalism is law and order And development, violent means cannot not be justified to attain just ends. Strengthening PRIs, truly empower them with funds, functions and functionaries, decentraliz based on principle of subsidiary, effectively implement 5 and 6 schedule provisions, respecting GP decisions in environmental clearances, including local people in the development of the region are some ways to lessen its influence.

    • Kirthi
      1 Vote

      Sir,
      Can you let us know what to include in the answer
      – should we include indian efforts in dealing with terrorism – NATGRID etc.?
      – and war on many fronts – should we include regionalism, communalism, secessionist tendencies too?
      – or would dealing with insurgency and terrorism would do?

      • Kirthi
        Rate This Response!

        Completely forgot to mention northeast insurgency too.

        • 1 Vote

          The question is clear – basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and ineffectiveness of India in dealing with them – you should analyze.

          First in a sentence you should write the difference between terrorism and insurgency. mention them in the Indian context. Then analyze their root causes. Then analyze why India is failing in dealing with them.

          Communalism is irrelevant here. It is not terrorism. Mention of cross border terrorism and home grown terrorism should be made (don’t just associate with single religion)

          Then mention about various insurgencies taking place across the country and their causes.

          While analyzing India’s effectiveness in dealing with these threats, you have mentioned good points. Also police reforms (you have gone into much detail), agrarian reforms, addressing regional inequalities, giving political space for disgruntled groups, fighting communalism -( it breeds sense of alienation), strengthening border security, improving infrastructure along the borders, effective diplomacy, effective use of international organizations etc should be analyzed.

  12. GAGANDEEP SINGH
    2 Votes

    Answer 2:
    Yes it is very true that India is fighting on many fronts such as poverty, economic development, unemployment…etc and terrorism and insurgency is one of those fronts. But question arises where do these come from or why India can’t get rid of them
    .
    Cross-Border terrorism is root cause of terrorism in India. Terrorist camps along POK are training innocent youth by injecting in them seditious thoughts based on religious thinking.If we have to eradicate it we need to improve our watch and strictness on border areas. Youth should be educated to empower rational thinking.Intelligence agencies along with cooperation of state police can tighten border areas.

    Growing differences between government and people led to growth of Maoism,Naxalism,ULFA and other various armed rebellion groups.Government wants development in these areas but some local leaders want their autonomous regions which are mainly tribal areas.
    There is need to find middle way to tackle these insurgencies, as it is rightly said that ” Main casualties of War is Society”.

    State has huge role to play in it because every state knows its people, their thinking,their needs and demands.Also strategically all the locations,areas of concern are well known to State Police. Centre-State cooperation can effectively deal with these situations. High Level Committees should be formed and leaders of these insurgent groups should be invited to have dialog on these issues.There is a need of sustainable development in these sensitive areas. Proper elementary education along with opportunity to pursue higher education in deemed universities should be brought in focus.In the end it should be not be wrong to say that State has big role to play, to provide effectiveness in all spheres to these remedies.

    • Nirmal Singh
      Rate This Response!

      Where is state response analysis and there are other factors which can contribute to terrorism land Insurgency like ideologies.Recommendation you given are good

    • Rate This Response!

      You should get basics right Gagan. Answer is biased and wrong on certain facts too. More depth is needed. The question doesn’t ask what government should, do it seeks why its policy is so far ineffective. (take suggestions in good spirit)

  13. Anjali Motghare
    1 Vote

    Afghanistan is strategic partner of India. It is important for India from many perspective, border plus internal security, link to central Asia, part of ring road which is potentially world energy supply chain extended neighborhood, Cross-Border Transport Agreement will ultimately connect East-Asia and Arabian Sea through Central Asia and shares historical ties with India.
    India is the fifth largest contributor in Afghanistan and invested in many
    fields; education, social upliftment health industry and the like. India succeeded in developing a feeling of gratitude in Afghan people.
    After US exit India will need to play important role, for its own concern and for Afghanistan’s stability also.
    India should focus more on development work, as always people prefer development over terrorism and insecurity. On the economic sector India could help establish small and medium enterprises, alternate livelihood programmes. More stress could be on to implement development programmes to address poverty, illiteracy and systemic administrative dysfunction
    Help Afghan forces in training to counter insurgency as it has to play
    more proactive role in building the capabilities of the Afghan security sector.
    Stress for national dialog over transparent and fair election process. It would need to engage present Afghan government and other political groups to ensure free and fair elections.
    AS we can’t expect what will be the exact scenario after US troops withdrawal, India need to utilize a range of diplomatic, military, and economic tools and set clear policy markers to sustain the democratic order and deny the space for the return of the extremists.
    The short term projects could be training of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), particularly its officer corps, the police, paramilitary, and the air force, and also helping to build the justice sector.
    Long term project could be security sector reform and building
    sound civil-military relations for preventing the disintegration or loss of civil control of the army.
    India has done lot in Afghanistan and if to ensure it doesn’t get lost it needs to act on range of available option to help Afghanistan emerge as a sovereign stable and prosperous nation.

  14. Asha Goud
    1 Vote

    Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    A: The location of Afghanistan is at the heart of Central Asia. Instabilty in Afghanistan will eventually spread to the neighbouring countries. Russia, China, India and Pakistan have a huge stake in keeping Afghanistan clear of insurgencies.

    India has a Strategic Partnership Agreement with Afghanistan. With areas of co operation ranging from security, trade and economic, education, development. India has made commitment to provide $2 billion developmental assistance. Therefore India has focused on providing humanitarian and development assistance and largely kept away from getting directly involved in the fight against the armed struggle.

    In the current scenario when USA is looking for options to get out of Afghanistan as soon as possible it becomes imperative for India to develop Afghanistan Strategy from security perspective. India rejected President Hamid Karzai’s request for providing lethal arms to fight Taliban. However military assistance is very important for keeping the Taliban and al Qaeda under control in the region. For this India should collaborate with other stakeholders in the region and develop a strategy with co operation.

    At the same time India should keep its main focus on developmental assistance as even after the long drawn war since 2001 USA and the NATO are still not successful in controlling the insurgencies. Real answer to the region is development and integration of the nation in the region which has been long left out.

    • Asha Goud
      1 Vote

      Q India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

      A India is a unique country that houses large scale diversity in terms of diversity geography, people, culture, religion bound together by historical reasons.

      At present India is facing problem of terrorism funded by outside to destabilse the country and several insurgencies from within like the naxal movement or the insurgencies in north east with demands varying from separate statehood to demands for independence.

      To effectively counter these internal security problems it is very important to understand the nature of problem.

      Left wing extremist movement has developed in certain backward regions of many states. This movement rejects the authority of government, for government has failed them. Government’s initial approach was to control the movement by using force, however it only further accentuated the insurgencies. Therefore the right approach would be to increase development in affected regions. The Integrated Action Plan initiated by government with focus on development.

      In the North East, there are demands for separate states, more autonomy or complete independence based on the argument that the region is distinct from the rest of India and also isolated and largely neglected. Political integration along with development should be focus in this region.

      The Jammu and Kashmir region has its unique problem of demand for independence and cross border terrorism. J&K already has been provided with special constitutional status. The main problem is lack economic development and employment.

      India should strengthen its intelligence gathering institutions like RAW and IB to control the cross border terrorism. A pan India intelligence sharing mechanism should be in place like the envisaged NCTC and NATGRID. Border security should also be focused.

      • Anjali Motghare
        Rate This Response!

        Asha u explained insurgency locations but missed root causes of it and terrorism. With that u haven’t dealt with states effectiveness.

        • Kirthi
          Rate This Response!

          Though state effectiveness is inadequate, liked the structure of answer -LWE,NE,JK

  15. Nirmal Singh
    1 Vote

    2.The specter of terrorism and insurgency are haunting India and are one the biggest challenge India is facing today.Both are born out of different concerns with spatial and temporal variations and need through investigation.
    Terrorism started out in India during 1990s in Jammu & Kashmir is deeply rooted in ideological extremism with support of state actors.It is further influenced by historical reasons like boundary disputes,wars.Pakistan is supposed to be source of all forms of terrorism directed towards India.Ever since Partition of India, 3 Indo-Pak wars and later liberation of Bangladesh Pakistan has changed its response by sponsoring Terrorism.
    Insurgency has multidimensional root causes like Ideological issues non inclusive development ,lack of political representation,social injustice,government policies and political demands.For example Naxalism is influenced by communism ,insurgency in NE India owes to separatist movements.
    Government has responded to insurgency by deploying Paramilitary forces,salwa judam and building social infrastructure like schools ,hospitals but seems to be of little use as evident from recent Maoist attack and extra judicial killings.There is need for shift by switching to more effective solutions like granting 6th schedule status for self governance,right based approach,The recent initiatives to build mobile towers and creation of special groups for negotiations is a welcome step.
    The India has been a soft state when it comes to terrorism.
    The recurrences of terrorist attacks is direct testimony to failure of diplomacy.The situation is further worsened by enacting anarchic laws like POTA,TADA,AFSA and ineffective money laundry Act. The efforts to solve coordination problems by formation of NTC and NATGRID is in doldrums due to widespread opposition.Need of the hour is to exercise counter diplomacy complemented by vigilant inner security.

    • 2 Votes

      Terrorism increased after 1990, but was started way back in 1948 (attack on kKshmir was a terrorist attack, it was not military offensive). Mention should be made of terrorism in Punjab (Khalistan movement).

      Salwa Judum was a privately formed, but government supported it (now dissolved after SC verdict).

      Otherwise, answer is very good.

      • Nirmal Singh
        Rate This Response!

        Thanks for improvement .Is there any way I can further condense my answer without compromising points.I think i already exceeded word limit

        • Rate This Response!

          Your answer is fine. Word limit – you have exceeded some 20-30 words, may be you could shorten first paragraph into one sentence. Otherwise well condensed incorporating good points.

  16. Anjali Motghare
    Rate This Response!

    India has fighting war on many fronts. Neighborhood threat of war,
    Cross border terrorism, internal Maoist insurgency, fake currency, communal conflict, drug peddling, energy security, food security and pandemics.
    National security is a complex spider web and each strand of this web is connected to other strands.
    Terrorism and insurgency is a act of violence that targets civilians to overawe a legally constituted government and people in the pursuit of political or ideologiacal aims.
    The root cause of terrorism are manifolfd. There are environmental factors responsible for terrorism and insurgency. Grievances such as social, political, or economic, with their nature of being real, or imagined, just or unjust, motivate people to resort to terrorism against those who holds power.
    There are ideological factors, terrorist claim themselves “true believer” possessed by will to better society through radical and revolutionary techniques. For Marxist-Leninists-Maoists targets are always the upper rich classes, for nationalists, the targets are always the colonialists, for the religious extremists, the targets are always people of belonging to other religion.
    Psychological/socio-psychological- analysts says some of who join terrorism are mentally disturbed, having imbalanced brain. Some join for a thrill, some to earn money, some to defend their religion or community.
    Culture of violence is another factor. Opposing cultures, being in
    conflict over a period, result in terrorist activities.
    In the Indian context measures to combat terrorism are failed to
    act as deterrent. Constantly after certain gap India witnessed terrorist or Maoist activity like bomb blast, or mass troops killing. Recentaly Bastar attack and Bodh-Gaya blast.
    To overcome terrorism national as well as international support is necessary.Vigilant intelligence agency, high class police force with ultra modern weopons and technolgy are institutional requirement. Economic and regional imbalances would have to be minimized. Citizens need to stop providing assistance to them, instead support administration to curb the menace. Communal harmony is another essential requirement
    to counter terrorism and insurgency.

  17. NB
    Rate This Response!

    1) In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    Afghanistan has civilization links with India. Being geographically very close to us whatever happens their affects India. United States have gradually decided to exit from their after more than a decade of presence there. In spite of US led forces Taliban is mighty power in Afghanistan today. India has reason to worry because once again Taliban can control Afghan, which will be detrimental to peace in the region.

    India has already stated that any stability in Afghanistan is possible only by Afghan led and Afghan owned process. Before US exit, India need to convince US about danger of collaborating with Taliban. Extremist forces are required to be curbed. India should start making sincere effort to convince other major international players about this sense of urgency.

    India further should continue its development role in Afghanistan, which will develop trust with people of Afghanistan. Further India should also collaborate with Pakistan as well. which is closest neighbor of Afghanistan.
    After exit of US it would be prime responsibility of other stakeholders to help in reconstructing Afghanistan peacefully and defeating extremist forces.

    Indian foreign policy therefore must be aggressive to convince international players to sideline Taliban and led the development in Afghanistan by their own people.

  18. S.P
    Rate This Response!

    After 9\11,US government knew what terrorism is? Later NATO led ISAF( International Security Assistance Force) forces were sent to Afghanistan to dismantle terror base and made it free from terrorist’s clutches.Now,US and other have decided that they will withdraw their forces in 2014 and therefore whole world and specially India and neighbouring countries are more worried about Afghanistan’s future.
    India has given assistance to Afghanistan in two ways,
    1)Financial assistance for development project inside Afghanistan. and 2)Training provided to Afghan army so that they could maintain law and order in their country.
    After 2014,though US led western forces withdraw from Afghanistan but that will not be the complete withdrawal.So US influence is not going to end,it will minimize to some extent.Therefore, what India has to do is that it should continue and take steps forward on development and other assistance programme to increase it’s influence in Afghanistan and through Afghanistan to other central Asian countries.
    While doing this India should work closely with other stakeholders like Pakistan,Iran,US and other for overall development of Afghanistan.Such close cooperation is important because whenever India act independently,Pakistan see it as a sign of threat to it’s own position in that country.In near future when India’s need of energy will increase many fold, such close cordial relation can only bring desired result from different projects like TAPI ,IPI etc.
    Today,when India is diversifying it’s export destination, Afghanistan and other central Asia countries will provide good market in future if India take right steps at present.

  19. Biman Ghosh
    1 Vote

    2)India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

    In entire south Asia,India is one of the countries,which is facing terrible form of terrorism on all of it’s fronts-be it extremism insurgency,cyber terrorism or internal naxalism movements.the country is busy to tackle this menace at all fronts..

    The different kind of terrorism has different causes.The extremism insurgency is the result of growing hostile attitude of our rival neighbors ,especially Pakistan and Bangladesh.They play the card of insurgency and carry out massive terror attacks across the country.Its a kind of dog warfare against India with less cost,yet effective.
    Lacking in cooperation among the intelligence agencies and security forces has been largely responsible to counter such insurgency.the geographical landscapes of Indian borders further increases it.
    Thogh,the govt has taken a number of steps.like installation of HD cameras across the border,forming high Mountain strike corps along Indo-China border yet the less faith of border people over Indian security forces make such measures less effective.In fact,they make the situations ripe for infiltration.

    cyber-terrorism is a new form of challenge,in front of Indian security agencies.In recent years it causes considerable harm to our country in form of loosing sensitive information. These information can paralyze our important sectors,like banking,civil aviation,power,etc. and that’s why they launch offensives at such a large scale.
    despite being a IT hub,the govt. fails to prevent such cyber attacks.lacking of trained manpower can be held as a chief reason.we have very less cyber experts in compares to the US and China.Modern techniques can also play a vital role to tackle this,which we don’t have.Only 40 billion US$ is our defense budget,even in which only a tiny part goes for cyber security.the financial constraints remain in front of defense warriors.the establishment of NATGRID and enacting the National Cyber Security Policy(NSCP) 2013 are of some good steps towards it.
    Our country remains largely vulnerable to various kind of terrorism right from its origin.we have to come up with very innovative and constructive ideas to tackle this menace.

    • Biman Ghosh
      1 Vote

      sir,this quisition deserve to get answer atleast 300 words..due to word constraint i had to cut a substantial part of ans. regarding internal terrorism and govt endeavors..i wrote the answer considering the external terrorism…pls clear my doubt…thanks

  • Mohit Gupta

    As per the announcement of US president Barrack Obama, US would withdraw its troops from Afghanistan by the end of 2014. Afghanistan is a war torn country having an unstable government where taliban, the extrimist, runs a parallel government and having a new encounter with democracy. In such a scenario, it would certainly look forward to its friends and well wishers in and around the region to stand by its side.
    India has been consistently active in the rebuilding of afghanistan. It has already put forward a handsome budget for construction of roads and infrastructure including healthcare and rehablitation. India has also been a contributor to UN welfare programs in the third world countries. In such a case, it becomes moral duty of India to help a nation which is war torn and where democracy is at its inception.
    A major problem that Afghanistan would face that of rise of Taliban again. It is evident from the fact that every now and then it has to grapple with the ire of bomb blast by the means of suicide bombers or others. India may provide military training to its soldiers to handle such a situation. Also Indian intelligence technology may be beneficial to keep a hold on taliban.
    As education provides a new vision to an educated person. India may invest in the education sector there. And also in the Research and Development in the field of political science and democratic education. It would hold a stable and firm democratic government.
    In such a way, India can put forward an image of compassionate nation and can increase its goodwill in the arena of international politics. As we all know that Afghanistan has large reserve of oil and natural gas. Their security as well as investment by indian companies in the hydrocarbon sector would be beneficial for an energy deficient country like India. So, to conclude, India’s strategy in Afghanistan after US exit must be that of a friend, compassionate nation, guardian of democracy and a businessman, in that order.

  • cppcontrol

    In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    India has a strategic partnership with Afghanistan which is likely to increase after the exit of US forces. The ever changing dynamics in Afghan would be a huge challenge for India. With countries like Russia, china waiting to influence Afghan’s policy after the US pull out, it would be imperative on India’s part to engage with Afghanistan with caution.

    India, which has invested heavily for developmental work in Afghanistan needs a democratically led stable regime with hundreds of Indian people working there in various capacities. However, the Taliban are the main source of worry for India. It they capture power, it will lead to review of India’s foreign policy and aid. India has major investment lined up in Afghanistan including the ambitious TAPI pipeline. Afghanistan is important for India in the sense that it will help get India’s access to the resource rich Central Asia.

    India should engage in maintaining and training the Afghan armed force, train its bureaucracy and help in building institutional structures liek healthcare,infrastructure etc rather than involve in internal mattes of Afghanistan. India should open up diplomacy front with Pakistan in this regard and hold talks for bringing peace and stability in the Pak- Afghan region. Mutlilateral talks including China, Russia, Iran and other Central asian countries should gradually follow.

    Both Russia and US has had massive causalities while dealing with Afghanistan in the past. With its evolving society amid internal clashes, India has a very important role to play without interfering in the internal situation of Afghanistan. Hopelessly starved of resources, the fate of New Afghanistan would largely depend on aid of international communities like India to support the ongoing phase of transition and stabilization and development.

  • Ramdas Kale

    1) In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

    India’s neighbor Afghanistan’s geostrategic location in south Asia and proximity to energy rich central Asia makes it significant for India’s security, energy needs and trade route. India has made huge investments in Afghanistan. For them to bear fruit, peace and stability is of utmost importance.
    US exit from Afghanistan has created a dangerous situation for its infant democracy. Possibility of Taliban resurgence with Pakistan’s backing can create another civil war. It can provide safe haven for terrorist activities against India.
    India’s strategy should be guided by vision for Afghan development with peace and democracy. India should make every effort to strengthen the democratic processes and institutions in Afghanistan.
    India should continue to make investments in Afghanistan and convince other stakeholders to do so. It should engage with all the ethnic people like Hazara, Pashtun,etc. India needs to create an acceptance in the minds of Afghan people. They should be convinced of India’s long term engagement.
    India should provide training to strengthen afghan security forces and supply military equipments to fight Taliban. People to people cooperation through student exchange programmes, skill development initiatives, cultural programmes can go a long way in enhancing soft power of India.
    India should convey its displeasure at US’s secret engagement with Taliban in no uncertain words. Such attempt should be thwarted using all international forums. Democracy in Afghanistan with dignity to all ethnicities and women should be the guiding light for India’s policy as it is the best way to secure our interests.

  • http://borahrahul.wordpress.com cppcontrol

    India is fighting war on many fronts. Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

    Terrorism and insurgency remains the major challenge as far as internal security of India is concerned. Both of them tend to disrupt the peaceful environment of the country by instilling a sense of fear and horror.

    Terrorism in India has been mainly Pakistan sponsored. Issues involving J&K has been the main source of their growth and hatred towards India. Let, JeM,Hizbul mujahideen, Harkat ul mujahedeen are few organizations which are supported by ISI that is maintaining its operations in India and targeting innocent people and places.

    Insurgency in India has its root deep in the historical, cultural and ethnicity aspect of the country. Political aspirations of various insurgent groups also plays a crucial role. Insurgency in the north east basically wants independence from India. Backed by many external forces, it remains a major threat to the unity of the country. Religious radical organization like the IM is also involved in many incidents. The naxalism in central India has grown mainly due to the economical and developmental disparity among the various regions and the lack of infrastructural and basic needs of the tribals. Many insurgent movements has some kind of public support in it.

    However, basic difference in terrorism and insurgency is that the former wants to create panic in the country and target both non combatants and combatants whereas the latter wants political hold and targets mainly the combatants of the Indian forces. Both cannot be clubbed together and separate and different approach is necessary to tackle the issues.

    The state has not been fully able to control the security threats inspite of agencies like IB and RAW. However, various organizations like NIA, has been specially made to handle terrorists cases. Acts like the Unlawful activities (Preventation) amendment act 2004 has been in place. In the insurgent regions of NE, acts like AFSPA are in place to control any sort of disruption. However, the human rights violation by the security forces are a major concern which needs to be addressed. With the government firm in passing NCTC, the effectiveness of the state in tackling with these threats would be manifold.

  • Keerthi Narayan

    India’s strategy towards Afghanistan:

    The US recently announced that its security forces will exit Afghanistan after 2014. After the exit of NATO forces, India’s strategy towards Afghanistan should focus on 3 important areas:
    – Facilitating a stable democratically elected government
    -Dismantling terrorist infrastructure
    -Helping in fast economic growth and development

    Afghanistan is India’s neighbour and a strategic partner. India has multiple stakes in Afghanistan. The Af-Pak region has been the epicentre of global terrorism in the past decade and India has been affected badly in this regard. Afghanistan is located in the heart of Asia and acts a connecting route to Central and West Asia for India. India has spent considerable expenditure for the developmental activities in Afghanistan. So India’s strategy should focus on improving the political, economic and security scenarios of Afghanistan for its sake and for India’s own sake.

    Facilitating a stable democracy:
    West Asian countries, in the past decade, have proven that a democratically elected government which gives the necessary political rights to its citizens is the primary way to bring peace to the region. Hence, India should help Afganistan in conducting free and fair elections, as it helped Nepal and Bhutan.

    Dismantling terrorist infrastructure:
    The Taliban and Taliban supported terrorist groups are clearly a threat to any neighbouring nation. Hence, India should train Afghan’s security forces in intelligence and counter-terrorist operations. At the same time, Taliban has recently agreed to come for talks. India should encourage Afghanistan in engaging talks with the Taliban, though a compromise and a peaceful agreement may take many more rounds of talks.

    Helping in fast economic growth:
    The large security force maintenance and developmental activities of Afghanistan will need financial assistance from various countries. India has been and should continue helping Afghanistan in this regard, as self sustained development alone may allow the country to return to normalcy in the long run

    If India sets these as its strategies in Afghanistan, it will serve multiple interests: helping a needy neighbour, self security, emerging as a influential nation in asian arena, engraving its image deeper as a proponent of democracy in the world.

    2. Terrorism and Insurgency:

    It is true that when it comes to security and peaceful existence, India is waging war on multiple fronts. On one hand, the ugly head of terrorism, both home grown and foreign sponsored, keep popping its head at various regions through bomb blasts, armed atttacks etc. On the other hand, various regions of India are facing armed rebellions or insurgency trying to throw the State apparatus away.

    Causes of terrorism:
    In Indian context, terrorism can be classified as home grown and foreign sponsored. The latter include outfits like Lashkar e Taiba, Jaish e Mohammed, Hisbul Mujahideen whereas the former include Indian Mujahideen , Al Umma etc.

    The home grown terrorism is an ideological limb of foreign sponsored outfits. Their aim is to create terror in the minds of people and disrupt peace in the country. Its main causes are ideological differences and religious hatred. The members are recruited at a young age and radicalised to serve the objectives of the organisation.
    The foreign sponsored terrorist outfits are primarily aimed at collapsing the Indian state’s security

    Insurgency has different causes though. It has its roots in inequality, oppression of the weak by the mighty, political ambitions etc. For example, the cause of Maoist insurgency is a combination of all the three.

    Effectiveness:
    So far the state has been largely ineffective in countering terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks have occurred in every state, on both small and large scales. The symbol of Indian Democracy, the Parliament, itself has undergone a terrorist attack. Bomb blasts like Bodh Gaya, armed attacks like Mumbai 26/11 occur every year. Lack of intelligence and ill equipped police forces are a main reason.

    When it comes to insurgency, the effectiveness is average. The insurgent areas like Chattisgarh, Jammu and Kashmir, Mizoram, Chattisgarh, Jharkand, Odisha have witnessed insurgent gorup attacks but the security forces have also succeeded to a considerable extent in curbing them. There are controversies like use of AFSPA, Salwa Judum with which the Forces countered these insurgent areas though. A lot need to be done in this front. Allowing the oppressed like tribals to participate freely in democratic and development process, good governance, sensitivising the forces about human rights can effectively counter insurgency threats.

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