PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION – Answer Writing Challenge

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Wilson’s vision of Public Administration; Evolution of the discipline and its present status;

Question 1

“While professionalization was advocated in the management of government, Wilson was well aware of the wider agenda of public administration.” Mohit Bhattacharya.

n the light of above statement evaluate the relevance of Wilson’s ideas in developing countries of 21st century. (200 Words)

 

Question 2

 “The study of public administration developed as an offshoot of political science or public law, and until recently administration as an academic subject was the very plain step-sister of these older disciplines”. Peter Self. Examine (200 Words)

by Shashwat Mishra

Tomorrow’s Topics

Wilson’s vision of Public Administration; Evolution of the discipline and its present status; New Public Administration;

72 Responses

  1. Gangi Reddy says:

    Wilson, who was widely considered as the father of public administration has initially advocated the politics administration dichotomy limiting the administration to deal with the implementation of policies made by the political executive. He felt the need if professionalisation of management in administratio to achieve efficiency and economy while implementing such policies.

    However, Wilson was aware that the activities of governmenet are far more than that of a private organization. A private organzation aims at profits in it’s activities by ensuring efficiency and effectiveness of the products to a limited population. Public administration’s activities are not profit oriented and it’s activities are objective in nature.

    Activities of government can be largely split into protecting it’s people, ensuring growth ofthe economy, providing basic services to the people etc,. Management may not be able to provide all these services without expecting a return from the people.

    While providing these services, a public administrator should be aware of the law of the land, issues of people, try to minimize the volatility of the macro economic situations and maintain good relations with the neighbouring countries. A manager may not know all these aspects.

    Hence professional management alone cannot ensure the effective functiong of a government. Objectives are different and so are the values government has to ensure effectiveness as well as equity along with efficiency and economy. Hence public administration has wider activities, objectives and values which cannot be satisfied by professional management.

    • Gangi Reddy says:

      Should have cross checked management vs administration but couldn’t, so pls do criticise if it demands Thanks!

      • babji859 says:

        i have taken a different approach for this question…anyways few observations(need not be write always)
        1. this is not a question of public versus private
        2. management/administration is are generic words and cannot simply be equated with pvt/public
        3.professional does not mean incompetency or insensitivty..its quite different
        4.so answer went in a different direction..
        5. be a bit balanced..

        • Gangi Reddy says:

          Hey u are right with the professional aspect independendence and all tat but but take a look at the second part wider agenda of pub ad compared to management! Doesn’t tat call for pvt vs pub?

        • Gangi Reddy says:

          And the point I was trying to make was professionalisation leads to efficiency and economy! I think that’s also the point made by the statement as well??

          • babji859 says:

            wider agenda could be interpreted in different ways
            u have taken that as scope/activities of the public administration(probably) and i took it as being accountablity to representative institutions, public etc which conventional professional disciplines are not

            also what is wrong if it leads to efficiency and economy but without compromising larger public interest and equity as professionalization does not mean privitization alone…

    • Shashwat says:

      @Gangi Reddy… I would have said the same thing. So I don’t think I should provide the answer for this question today. And reviewing by me is futile obviously.

      Though as the question framer I find it as my moral responsibility to provide my answers everyday. But I don’t think I could add anything more than this answer except some catchy phrases and examples. So please excuse me for this question.

      Friends please review.

  2. aslesha2013 says:

    Question 1
    “While professionalization was advocated in the management of government, Wilson was well aware of the wider agenda of public administration.” Mohit Bhattacharya.
    In the light of above statement evaluate the relevance of Wilson’s ideas in developing countries of 21st century. (200 Words)

    • BKPrajapati says:

      Woodrow Wilson is considered as father of public administration. He has started the dichotomy of administration and politics. He wanted to make administration as more business like, without interference of politician. His aim was to achieve professionalism in public administration by having hierarchy, division of labour, rule of law etc.
      But Wilson was well aware that administration could not be run without political interference. So suggested that administration should understand the politics but should not indulge in it. Understanding of politics helps them to convince political masters for larger public interest by suggesting policies to politicians by showing their advantage.
      Wilson’s ideas are relevant in developing countries like India, Brazil, South Africa etc in 21st century. As in these countries administration got influence by politics often like in case of transfers of officials, in policies implementation etc.
      So in developing countries there is less clear demarcation in the areas of working of politics and administration. It is better for administration to understand politics and try to take out best in the public interest.

      • babji859 says:

        @prajapati..
        professionalism does not mean hierarcy etc..
        read fadia if u have it….do understand the words before writing which helps in arriving at resonable answers
        question is more than politicization of bureaucracy

    • Sherlock Holmes says:

      “While professionalization was advocated in the management of government, Wilson was well aware of the wider agenda of public administration.” Mohit Bhattacharya.
      In the light of above statement evaluate the relevance of Wilson’s ideas in developing countries of 21st century. (200 Words)

      Ans. Wilson stressed on the introduction on management principles in the Administration to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the governance. However he was equally aware of the differences between government activity and private activity and the presence of public good in government administration.

      These ideas find their place more so in 21st century where developing countries have to deal with large scale socio-economic challenges along with maintaining efficiency in government works and maximizing the output. This is precisely the same reason why PSUs are over staffed because they are serving the additional purpose of providing employment to the people. Similarly, while most private organizations have 5 day work week to enhance employee productivity, government departments have 6 day work week to maximize output.

      For the same reason, governments are slow in adopting new technologies and financial innovations because there is a larger public good associated with the government and they cannot afford to fail by innovation like private sector which can take risks. Therefore Wilson is correct in distinguishing the wider agenda of public administration from the private administration.

      Please Review !

    • babji859 says:

      Q) “While professionalization was advocated in the management of government, Wilson was well aware of the wider agenda of public administration.” Mohit Bhattacharya.
      In the light of above statement evaluate the relevance of Wilson’s ideas in developing countries of 21st century.

      A) The politico-administrative context of US in which Wilson called for professionalizing the management of government looks quite similar to the 21st century developing countries as the problems of political and bureaucratic corruption, politicization of bureaucracy, inefficient, uneconomical and ineffective provision of services to the people by the public administration are common to both.

      Professionalization gives public administrators a measure of independence, value orientations and competency to work. The growing expectations of people in developing countries in a globalized world can only be met by enthusing a degree of professionalism in public servants. But professionals seek to secure for themselves a certain degree of insulation and relative independence from direct democratic control.

      Wilson was well aware of this fact and so called for a civil service that is cultured and self-sufficient enough to act with sense and vigor, and yet so intimately connected with popular thought, by means of elections and constant public counsel, as to find arbitrariness or class spirit out of the question. This is of greater importance in developing countries as democracy in still in the process of strengthening itself and cannot control bureacracy completely.

      So the ideas of Wilson about professionalization are still relevant for developing countries of 21st century with values like being responsive to needs of the public, promoting equity and commitment to democracy as an integral part of code of conduct for the civil service. As D. Waldo said public administration should act like a profession but not becoming one.

      **Note: a different take which could be wrong too

      • Gangi Reddy says:

        Also I think the emphasis of the question is on agenda of pub ad and management logical end of which according to me is pub vs pvt. Ur answer is largely limited to that of professionalisation! Well that’s what I think!!

      • शाश्वत मिश्र says:

        @babji859.. accurate answer. With better perspective.

        • rs5000month says:

          According to Woodrow Wilson, bureaucracy should be independent in its acts from political interference. It should act on set principles made by political laws. It is essentially similar in its implementation with business institutions, who work on set principles of efficiency, clarity and set hierarchies.
          But, in large picture, public administration is closely related to political laws, and is indeed a reflection of these laws in its working. So, these two can’t be separated.
          Wilson’s ideas hold considerable weight in developing countries of 21st century. Bureaucracy is indeed a suffere of excessive political interference, which aim for and act on public opinion rather than pushing vigorous adminsitrative reforms. It also suffers from inefficiency and lack of will to make decisions for general public welfare due to excessive political pressure. Bureaucracy and administrative organs should be separated in their working with only top levels under government control. The working should be liable to public criticism in a constructive manner, but no direct interference should be allowed.
          These ideals are and were founding stones of pub. ad and are strongly per-democratic including professional efficiency. If implemented properly these can surely change the development scenario in India.

          NOTE – I just failed to understand what is asked in this question, wrote this answer yesterday morning in my notes, just pasting it here so that you guys tell me what exactly it asked.

  3. aslesha2013 says:

    Question 2
    “The study of public administration developed as an offshoot of political science or public law, and until recently administration as an academic subject was the very plain step-sister of these older disciplines”. Peter Self. Examine (200 Words)

    • Shashwat says:

      Question 2
      “The study of public administration developed as an offshoot of political science or public law, and until recently administration as an academic subject was the very plain step-sister of these older disciplines”. Peter Self. Examine (200 Words)

      Ans Public Administration gained its distinct identity from the exemplary efforts of Wilson and Goodknow. They theorized that administration questions are not political questions, and the discipline was closer to management than political science. The classical thinkers in a quest to sever the umbilical cord with polity even claimed a purely scientific nature of the discipline denying the subjectivity usually associated with social sciences.

      However this was easier said than done. The political boss being the head of ministry was also the administrative boss and administrator being the implementer of policy, had a huge influence in policy making. With NPA and neo-behaviouralists gaining an upper hand the discipline became normative and acknowledged allocation of values as one of its agenda, which was earlier in the scope of political science.

      Administration was imagined as the machinery to implement laws. However, post liberalization, administrative tribunals and quasi-judicial bodies became prominent. Administration ventured into legislation itself. Thus the locus demarcation with public law also got blurred.

      However, post 1980s, public administration as a discipline made a comeback with newer tools for budgeting, organizing & implementing policies. Thus management as a generous sibling has come to the rescue of public administration when its expanding scope threatened its distinct identity.
      Thus Peter Self’s observation is justified.

      • Gangi Reddy says:

        Well I don’t think we should take a stand saying Peter Self is right and it is definitely not so. Like you said, consider a tribunal say NGT one who heads it ideally should be strong in environment related stuff or a CERC where he should know Electricity related stuff environment has nothing to do with PubAd or Mgmt, electricity regulation also has nothing to do with both of those. So it is too vast of a subject and can’t say it is part of one subjest or a sibling of other, mgmt may b cald so!

        U didn’t review my 2nd answer btw!

        • शाश्वत मिश्र says:

          @Gangi Reddy… How should I explain. Wait till the 4th unit. When we shall study organizations… we will understand the concept of NGT and CERC in a much better way. Till then keep writing.

          • Gangi Reddy says:

            I have once gone through delegated legislation and tribunals, so I think I can understand if u give me certain points, moreover the very reason they were set up was to ensure technicality which the courts lack (their quasi judicial activities). And they are meant to do merit review rather than procedural or judicial review which is not possible either with public law or management u need a specialist to head that. So I think it’s much different from that of those traditional topics!

            Correct me if I went wrong somewher and okay ll wait if u can’t explain right now and Thanks!!

        • Gangi Reddy says:

          Until recently doesn’t make much sense I guess!! Pub Ad itself was a new subject say about early 1900s? By 1960s u have NPA? By late 70s NPM, management howver has been part right from Taylor and Fayols time. 90s regulatory agencies etc, so I don’t know if it can be called that way. But yes he was right initially it was only part of pol sci and public law!

          • शाश्वत मिश्र says:

            @Gangi Reddy.. by recently he means in a comparative manner. NPM gained prominence in 1980s. Regulatory bodies were present in US as back as 1920 and even earlier in British India.
            But of course you can disagree too.

      • Aditya Jha says:

        Hi Shaswat,

        It was a very good attempt. You have covered the subject in its whole breadth. And, it shows that Peter Self was correct in commenting this.

        However, if you look at the directive of the question, “Examine”, it demands a deeper analysis of the causes and implications of Peter Self’s statement. For instance, other than saying that many thinkers denied the subjectivity that is generally associated with social sciences, there is a need to probe into the reasons behind this. Wilson observed that it was harder to run a constitution than to create it. He attribute this to the rise in population; challenges of urbanization; growing functions of state; growing aspirations of the citizens etc.

        Further, you also need to show how exactly and why Public Administration started separating from Public law. Of course, it is hinted in your answer, but not examined. This requires a discussion of Wilson’s view on Public Administration; and that of the emerging challenges of development and welfare post-WW II. From here then you can illustrate the growing complexities of administration in form of tribunals, budgeting etc as you have later done.

        I must say that you are doing a great job by putting questions daily here. Keep up the good work. :)

        • Sherlock Holmes says:

          Hi Aditya,
          Can you please check my answers. I have just started writing practice for Pub Ad and it would be really helpful if you can take a look at them and guide me..
          Thanks :)

          • Sherlock Holmes says:

            One more thing, right now I have Laxmikanth, IGNOU material and ARC reports for paper II. Shall I buy Goyal and Arora too or will these material suffice. Thanks again :)

          • Aditya Jha says:

            Sherlock,

            I would have loved to go through your answers. But, these days i am a little occupied. I will try to review whenever i find time.

            About the sources, please go through Prince Dhawan’s blog. It lists the most appropriate books. If you have any doubt even after that, you can always ask me. :)

        • शाश्वत मिश्र says:

          @aditya.. thankyou fo4 the review. I never thought of these perspective too. Thanks for pointing out.

        • rs5000month says:

          @ Aditya, You, have very great insights into the subject. Please provide the modal answers of both questions per day. I can’t go through all posts daily due to time limit. It will help me a lot.

          • Aditya Jha says:

            I would have bro. Actually i wrote Mains this year and earlier i was coordinating Pub Ad optional writing challenge by sending questions each day. But, i am a little occupied these days. As soon i get free, i would start reviewing answers.

            Here you must understand that in Pub Ad, one thing can be seen from many perspectives and there is no one best answer. There can be many good answers. I do not want to narrow your perspective by stating by answer as the model answer. Ideally you should go through at least 3-4 answers each day to understand this multiplicity of approaches. As far as important points are concerned, once you guys finish the syllabus good points would automatically come up. You need patience. It is more about learning from each other, rather than learning from a single source.

            Hope you understand.

            • rs5000month says:

              I concur with your view that going through 3-4 answers will be more beneficial for multidimensional analysis.
              Thanks a lot
              Mahendra

    • BKPrajapati says:

      Woodrow Wilson has written a historic essay on the public administration a historic essay on the public administration as “the study of public administration”. This essay has two parts- first part of the essay talked about the dichotomy of politics and administration.
      But in the second part, Wilson explained the reason why public administration could not be developed as another branch of knowledge.
      He further explained that initially political science has been developed but with the development of society and political system, administration was getting complicated, so to make it more business like, it is felt that public administration should be made a different discipline like political science and public laws.
      But at academic level, professors who were dominating in political science and public laws had not allowed public administration to be started as different discipline, as it would divide the resources of the department in universities and these people would also lose their dominance . Political leader were also engaged in their struggles for freedom of their countries and imperial nations leader were engaged in maintaining their dominance over there colonies.
      But inspite of so much development in discipline of public administration in few developed countries like US, france etc, many developing countries are giving step-sister treatment to public administration and teaching it with other disciplines.
      So, to realize the full potential of the advantages of discipline of public administration, there is a need to proper resource allocation and promoting it.

    • Sherlock Holmes says:

      “The study of public administration developed as an offshoot of political science or public law, and until recently administration as an academic subject was the very plain step-sister of these older disciplines”. Peter Self. Examine (200 Words)

      Ans. Public Administration refers to Government in action. It is the executive branch of the Government. Traditionally Public Administration has been studied as a part of Political Science or law. In the writings of Kautilya and Plato, there are elements of public administration but as a part of discussion on politics.

      It was only with the publication of essay ‘The Science of Administration’ by Woodrow Wilson in 1887 that efforts were made to study Public Administration as a separate subject. Wilson separated Administration from Politics stating that while politics is concerned with the expression of will of the state in form of policies, administration is concerned with the execution of these policies. Wilson also stressed on incorporating the management principles in Administration, thus taking it closer to management than political science.

      However, in the past few decades, the lines between politics and administration have blurred again and administrators are cooperating with political executives in policy making too. Therefore, though Public Administration has emerged as a separate science, its study is incomplete without taking into consideration subjects such as political science, economics, sociology etc. Without the study of these subjects, Public Administration is devoid of its character.

      [195 Words]

      Please Review. Positive and Negative Feedback both welcome !

      PS: Thanks Shashwat for posting the questions

    • rs5000month says:

      Public administration is related to how the government should function, what problems it can solve, how can it solve these problems in the most efficient manner, and how to achieve the objectives. It is totally related to the executive branch of the government.
      But, before 19th century, thinkers and scholars were mainly inclined towards political thoughts of what laws to make, how to frame those laws, constitution, seat of power, sovereignty, government types etc. which were essentially the political aspects. They never gave or researched how to efficiently implement these laws in public interest and that portion was left on the discretion of ‘clerks’.
      Wilson changed this by his pioneering contribution in the field of public administration. He argued that this aspect of how to implement should also be scientifically studied and proper postulates to be made on it. This pragmatic approach was indeed based on the previous knowledge of other disciplines of social sciences mainly political science. Pub. ad. was just bifurcation, or more specifically study of a particular part of political science, that was not studied till that date and needed special attention due to the changed environment, and growing complexities in the society and growing expectations and functions of government.
      Thus, public administration is surely an offshoot of political science and is a plain step sister of these older disciplines.

  4. Gangi Reddy says:

    Public Administration is a governmental activity, a government works on the law of the land and constitutionalism. Hence in the early days public administration was considereded just as an offshoot of political science and the public law.

    Governmental activities in the early days were limited to ensuring law and order and collecting revenue, thess two activities are an essential part of public law and it is also the basis of these activities. Hence academicians have limited their study to public law and political science which had every aspect of these activities.

    With increasing industrialisation the activities of the government have increased, post world war 2, many new countries have emerged, most of them without finances and hence they had to ensure the basic needs of people are met. Situation was similar even in the developed countries as well due to the effects of war.

    Hence most of ghe countries have taken to welfare administration, governments had to reinvent themselves in order to meet the increased demands. Many countries have set up Public sector enterprises to meet the demands. This required study of management and implementation.

    Governments now play a regulator role in many countries, this has needs specialisation in many activities economics, financial markets, banking etc.

    Hence public administration which was initially considered an offshoot of political science and public law, it is today the widest subject academically as well as in practice.

    Didn’t count but may have breached the word limit thing. Please do review. Thanks!

    • ARVIND says:

      WITH ALL REGARDS ,

      I strongly believe that answers in public administration demands for a specialist approach (rather said in all optionals) so its imperative that name of thinkers and their theories are involved in answer writing and this questioned specifically demands the same as the two study of knowledge were in never true sense separated :)

      • Gangi Reddy says:

        Hey Arvind u r right I guess but can u name a thinker who spoke much about this thing? As in, pub ad as being part of pol sci. I don’t remember reading anything as such!

        And the questions in UPSC thy can call anyone a thinker and give a statement made by them. So the yhing is u need to take a stand on the statement. U support it or against it. here Peter self was right initially and then the scope has become too vast, I tried to prove that and I think I have done a fair job! I feel that way hope someone points out no here u went wrong!!

        Please take a relook and if u find something else let me know. . Will be grateful!!

  5. ARVIND says:

    “The study of public administration developed as an offshoot of political science or public law, and until recently administration as an academic subject was the very plain step-sister of these older disciplines”. Peter Self. Examine (200 Words)

    ANS)- Public Administration as a study of knowledge departed from political science,when a call was given for a separate discipline by thinkers like Wilson,although the two studies has different functional domain ,one cannot separate the two as Public Administration deals with the will of the state.

    Public administration has went on ahead,amid many bewildering complexities in environment, with many paradigm shifts in the form of new concepts and theories ( NPA,PCT,REINVENTING GOVERNMENT,ENTREPRENEURIAL GOVT.,NPM et.al),but still there is always need of co-ordination between the line and staff ,policy makers and one who implement them at ground levels

    Wilson himself realized that the two study (P.A & P.S ) although works under different functional line their end realizations are same i.e welfare of public .but the tools used by each of them is different ,one formulates the policy and the other implements so a proper co-ordination between the two is always required.the classical thinkers as well as behaviorists also further focused on the same idea.

    Please review :)

    .

    • Sumit09b says:

      Good approach. But no mention of Peter self?

    • Gangi Reddy says:

      Lrt me be frank acc to me that answer to the question doesn’t make much sense . NPA, NPM all those u mentioned could have been used to prove that Peter Self is wrong!! I don’t know I think it’s nt the right answer!!

      • ARVIND says:

        my dear friend @gangi reddy ,in the question itself it is said that until recently both (P.S AND P.A) has went on together so it was imperative to mention how they parted ways (although not completely) and from it all started ,albiet,i am not claiming i am completely r8 :)

  6. Mohan says:

    ” In the globalized public administration, hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves…..” comment. ( 2013 / 150 words )
    The aftermath of LPG witnessed the emergence of globalized public administration. This made the public administration to change according to the developments at the global level.
    But, unfortunately, in the third world countries , where the administrative system is based on their respective colonial administrative set up, the bureaucracy is status-quo oriented and resists change. One of the area where it resists change is hierarchy.
    The continuation of hierarchy is antithetical to the developmental process. It expands the strength of lethargic bureaucracy. In the era of globalization, the role of public administration should be limited to the developmental activities. But the hierarchy encourages red-tapism and as a result the developmental works remain on paper.
    To conclude, in the globalised era, the continuation of hierarchy creates more ethical problems than it solves.

    • Shashwat says:

      @Mohan.. If you have written this year paper I don’t think you should ask for review because people could be rude and demoralizing. However, assuming you have not attempted it this year, I will review only this answer. Please don’t get demoralized.

      Moreover I was hoping to make this a platform for systematic study from scratch. People here have not read the complete syllabus how do you assume that they could review justifiably? Your venture needs a better and bigger platform. eg mrunal’s forum.

      I have always maintained that Pub ad is not so simplistic that anybody can claim that this is the best answer. So reviewing is futile unless the reviewer wants to learn the perspective of others. Anyways I shall paraphrase what I read from my sources.

      This question is asked from the topic NPA. A good answer must include the factors which apparently are solved by hierarchy but in reality greater demons are by and by created. This has been beautifully explained in IGNOU MA notes and Mohit Bhattacharya.

      The dynamic challenges of a globalized world will include cross national terrorism, tax evasion etc. It creates a society which is so much engrossed in self aggrandizement due to consumerist tilt that the interest of society is sidelined. In such a case the hegemony of hierarchy seems a possible solution.

      However, a globalized public administration is vulnerable to strong arm tactics of large multinational corporations who could influence the top administration by their magnanimous coercive prowess to abandon social justice and unethically allocate resources.
      With multifarious issues the top administration is tempted to implement a top down policy framework caring less about implementation constraints. With greater hierarchy mobilization of resources suffers due to red tape which causes loss of opportunity and trust deficit in a dynamic ecology.
      Thus in a global world the hierarchy creates more ethical issues than it solves.

  7. Mohan says:

    friends……..im writing this year mains questions…….please review my answers………..

  8. Mohan says:

    How did traditional public administration resolve a fundamentally irresolvable problem–

    “creating an administration strong enough to be effective but not so strong enough to endanger accountability” ? ( 2013 / 150 words )
    Public administration in any country is based on the principles of rules, hierarchy etc. With the emergence of Development administration as a sub-field in the study of public administration , the traditional administration lost its salience to some extent if not fully.
    This traditional public administration is based on outdated principles. One of such principles is authoritative and directive style of administration. Also, it is status-quo oriented and resists change. Its scope of operations is limited. Further, it believes in centralisation of power.
    However, traditional public administration is effective in the sense that it emphasised economy and efficiency in administration. Also, it does not endanger accountability as it focussed on rules, hierarchy, there by making the lower level officials accountable to the higher authorities.

  9. Mohan says:

    ” Finance commission in India performs the job of statistics aggression.” comment. ( 2013 / 150 words )
    The constitution of India guaranteed establishment of Finance commission through Article 280. Initially, this institution was established as an agency to distribute the taxes and grants in aid between the centre and the states.
    But, the emergence of its rival institution i.e., planning commission made it a mere constitutional body in distributing the taxes between the centre and states. The members of the planning commission being former civil servants and reputed political masters, made the central government tune to the recommendations of planning commission.
    Moreover, in recent decades, it transformed into sole custodian of the centre-state financial relations encroaching into the domain of Finance commission i.e., distribution of discretionary funds to the states, share of central taxes etc.
    To sum up, the emergence of an extra constitutional body ( planning commission ) made the constitutional body ( Finance commission ) a mere statistics aggregator in the domain of finance.

  10. Mohan says:

    ” The second generation reforms in the panchayati Raj institutions have changed panchayats from an agency of development at local level into a political institution.” Discuss. ( 2013 / 150 words )
    After independence many state governments in India established PRIs to give good governance to the local people. Unfortunately this did not happened due to many reasons viz., bureaucratic hurdles, political gains, lack of financial resources etc. This necessitated a common and comprehensive PRI Act across India. The 73rd constitutional Amendment Act of 1992 changed the scenario that persisted.
    This Act guaranteed free and fair elections to PRIs , transfer of grants in aid, share in central and state taxes etc. Over a period of time, the local PRIs transformed themselves into competing political institutions. Further, the emergence of a Gram sabhas made the local political leaders and lower rung of bureaucracy accountable on their part to the people. Moreover, the reservation of women in PRIs made them, free from gender bias in contesting elections.
    The second generation reforms unfortunately made this PRIs petty political institutions for capturing power. With the result there emerged factionalism and groupism in the local politics neglecting the developmental activities. However, in recent decades the situation has been changing as a result of Rural developmental programmes allaying PRIs in giving good governance as a whole to the rural India.

  11. Mohan says:

    ” civil service neutrality is founded on the application of the principles of Rule of Law.” comment ( 2013/ 150 words )
    India inherited the rule bound and service ridden bureaucracy that is neutral to politics and based on the concept of Rule of Law. Rule of law implies that no one is above the law including the highest government functionaries.
    In order to make civil service tune to nation building activities and developmental activities the framers of constitution envisaged certain privileges to civil servants in Articles 311, 312. Unfortunately, with the passage of time civil service has taken its own course to the old colonial mentality taking advantage of loopholes in the provisions of constitution.
    Further, in the recent decades there is a increase in criminalisation of politics and politicisation of higher civil services. With the result, civil service became an agency above the rule of law and it disturbed the civil service neutrality to some extent if not fully.
    However, the organs of the Indian state from time to time kept a check on the erosion of neutrality. The very recent judgement of SC to insulate civil servants from political pressures will go a long way in furthering civil service neutrality.

  12. Mohan says:

    friends…….I have written this year mains questions…….please review my answers……….

  13. rs5000month says:

    @ Insights
    Sir, is it possible that with topics, you also provide the book list or sources from where we can read these topics that we have to answer daily.

    • शाश्वत मिश्र says:

      @rs5000month… you should read the books which you already have. All the good books of Public Administration say the same thing. Its up to you to analyze the concepts and try to apply in questions. Don’t worry earlier I too use to think that if I will buy that book or read that notes, then I will write better. The truth which I learned the hard way was, that in this subject its not about reading but digesting and applying which matters. Therefore please answer using your book only. After all 1000 marks are for GS. better buy a book in that area.

      • rs5000month says:

        Just tell me the basic and most necessary books needed for the Paper 1 and Paper 2 of Pub. Ad. which will suffice the need. I’ve just started and don’t have time to search forums and other places for book list.

  14. Mohan says:

    “While professionalization was advocated in the management of government, Wilson was well aware of the wider agenda of public administration.” Mohit Bhattacharya.

    In the light of above statement evaluate the relevance of Wilson’s ideas in developing countries of 21st century. (200 Words)

    Woodrow Wilson Is regarded as the father of public administration. He believed that the study of public administration has certain principles and techniques, which are to be learned by its protagonists.
    It can be said that Wilson predicted the requirement of professional expertise in the management of governmental affairs, when he said that public administration has certain principles and techniques which have to be mastered.
    But, Wilson’s ideas are bound to be influenced by the institutional settings and cultural milieu of USA. After all, public administration as a discipline is developed in USA.
    However, Wilsons’s ideas have relevance in the third world countries too. The very nature of the administrative activities to be carried out in the third world countries requires some degree of professionalization in the management of governmental affairs and this is possible through the induction of training in the respective areas. This requires a research and reinvigoration in the academic subject of public administration.
    To sum up, there is still relevance of Wilson’s ideas in the developing countries of 21st century.

  15. Mohan says:

    friends…..please review my answer…………

  16. Mohan says:

    “The study of public administration developed as an offshoot of political science or public law, and until recently administration as an academic subject was the very plain step-sister of these older disciplines”. Peter Self. Examine (200 Words)
    The study of public administration as a discipline is a recent phenomenon. It dates back to 1887, when Wilson’s journal ” The study of public administration” was published.
    In the initial stage of the study of public administration, it gained salience from different sections of society. But during later periods, when there is suspicion about the efficacy of the study of public administration as a science, public administration tried to close itself to political science.
    In turn , political science treated public administration as a plain step sister and over a period of time neglected it.
    However, it distanced itself from the discipline of political science and moved close to the management. But, here too it experienced the same kind of treatment and finally after witnessing crisis situation, it emerged as an independent discipline. Many countries all over the world today, offer public administration as an academic subject in universities at various levels,
    It is pertinent here to mention that public administration as a perfect discipline is still to be achieved.

  17. Mohan says:

    friends………please review my answer….

  18. NEHA says:

    Ans1- Woodrow wilson’s major contribution to the study of contemporary public administration was not that the fields of politics and administration are or should be distinct but rather that the public bureaucracy should be staffed by professionals dedicated to monitoring and implementing the public will. He was expressing the concern of virtually all democratic theorists that government”by the people” is useless unless it produces effective government “for the people.” And today this is an issue of concern for the developing countries of 21st century.

    Wilson regarded that Public monitoring of the bureaucracy would displace the professionalism of the administrator with the noviceness of the citizen. Professional administrator who seeks to integrate culture, tradition, the lessons of history, the demands of technology and his own ethical judgement in policy decisions, must be awarded, as per Wilson’s view and this should be the approach and strategy of countries in 21st century which are developing democracies to have a good governance.

    Therefore Wilson who did not argue as much for the inseparability of politics and administration as he argued for the strengthening of executive institutions within government as the route to more effective representation of the common good. He wanted, as did the architects of Pendleton Act, to make government more moral, more competent, more farsighted and more responsive to society need and these are the need of the developing democracies today.
    Thus we can conclude that Wilson’s idea of professionalization are still relevant for countries of 21st century.

  19. NEHA says:

    Please review @ shaswat and all others..welcome to all valuable comments…

  20. NEHA says:

    Ans2- Public administration is as old as society and state themselves and it evolved as the agency of the syate which runs the administration of the country. According to Woodrow Wilson the late evolution of public administration was due to the fact that the governments had passed through three stages-:
    * period of absolute rulers
    * period of struggle for constitutionalism and popular control
    * period when on winning political battles people started thinking
    about freedom and perfect machinery for democratic administration
    In 1900, Frank Goodnow also presented the same view that politics and administration were separate areas of public life.

    Almost a century ago American public administration began to focus on administration as management and to shy away from law as the basis for administrative actions. This administration law separation has its origin in Woodrow Wilson’s famous pronouncement that the problem of administration is not how to found a constitution but to run one. This theme was echoed in early twentieth century that not only separated administration from politics but also divorced administration from its roots in law.

    But although public administration emerged as a separate discipline, it cannot be completely separated neither from political science nor from public law. Political Science and Public administration both focuses on the public arena of human society. One is the mode of formulation and other is of implementation.

    One the other hand legal profession has its own knowledge base and expertise yet administrators are expected to understand law. Law is an integral part of democratic fabric. Adjudication by administrative agencies and courts is part of the transparency, accountability and openness in a democratic government.
    Thus Peter Self’s observation is justified but not completely.

  21. NEHA says:

    Please review my answers…..
    @shashwat and all other aspirants….your review means a lot…..

  22. ATUL says:

    “While professionalization was advocated in the management of government, Wilson was well aware of the wider agenda of public administration.” Mohit Bhattacharya.
    n the light of above statement evaluate the relevance of Wilson’s ideas in developing countries of 21st century. (200 Words)

    Ans— In Third world Country, development are main concern of government and its functions are increasing day by day and is fully dependent on bureaucracy for fulfilling its administrative objectives. Woodrow wilsion in its study paper asked for reform in government and reform must be in the administrative field and also he advocated field of administration is field of business.
    Today developing countries are fulfilling development needs through bureaucracy which is inefficient, redtapism problem, adherence to rules and regulations and not much trained in service delivery to wide section of society and for all these issues need to tackled through reform and taking much processional in public administration.
    These reforms will address the issues related to administrative effectiveness, efficiency and economy in its functioning. Developing countries have to adopt ideas of business administration which is in synonymous to private industries. And there is need to open the public administration field to adopt best practices though employing professionals.
    There are need of public administration of developing countries to be change oriented, goal oriented, progressive, innovative, flexibility in organizational procedures and all these practices need to be adopted by developing countries which are the theme of business administration and advocated by Woodrow Wilsion.

    Pls review its my first answer on this Answer writing Practice….

  23. In question 2 I think we can say that, at present pub. Ad. Has come closer to the policy sciences and related areas. A separate study of private and public administration tended to merge into a single science of org whose theories and concepts were to be equally applicable to them. Today the increasing use of behavioural approaches encouraged the comparative studies of Administrative systems in diverse social settings and environments. Another dev in the study of pub ad is brought about by the adoption of the policial economy approach to the analysis of Administrative problems.
    Thus, pub ad has come a long way since 1857. It has established its credentials as an autonomous discipline, with an ever expanding literature and concerns which hav3 greatly influenced its evolution as an academic discipline.
    Please review! This is my first attempt. :)

  24. deepak says:

    Q1(8.1.2104)
    According to woodrow wilson ; public administration is synonymous with goverment in action or we can say that it deals with implementation of policy decisons. This broader agenda of administration remains same across various countries in diffrent time periods.
    However; in developing countries; the challenges before administrations has increased a lot. Nowadays administration has to deal with security problems; fiscal purudence in governance; good service delivery in quick time. Therefore ; there is a requirement of various professonal in the government. In 21st century; all services has become ICT based; as a result more professional are required.
    However ; basic core of administration remains same which is welfare of people. In fact; wilson was a greatan of vision and wisdom who was well aware of these facts

  25. Rahul Sharma says:

    “While professionalization was advocated in the management of government, Wilson was well aware of the wider agenda of public administration.” Mohit Bhattacharya.

    Wilson’s seminal essay “The study of Public administration” which laid down the foundation of PA as a discipline on the background ineffectiveness of American Spoil system marked the beginning of new approach to the subject.

    Wilson considered PA as less unbusiness like. He argued that there is nothing wrong in inculcating the values of efficiency, effectiveness and economy of business organization without changing the overall character of the COMMON WEAL of Public Administration. He being the first comparativist compared American Ad which was weak, corrupt and unethical in comparison to Britain’s which had much advanced tools and techniques to mitigate organizational incompetence. However, he only meant business like but not exactly business like as he was a staunch believer of PA as a means to fulfill societal objectives and people’s aspiration.

    Wilsonian views in neo liberal era are of great relevance in developing countries which are following a mixed economy model with governmental PSU and companies operating on the same values of profit & efficiency maximization. But such values are only a means towards greater objective of equity, empowerment and social justice which is visible in budgetary funding from the profits of PSUs like ONGC and NTPC to meet fiscal deficit which arise out of subsidies and governmental schemes like MNAREGA, RTE-SSA etc.

    Hence, Wilsonian perspective still holds its relevance.

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