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Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge Day – 29

QUESTIONS ASKED: DAY 29 (17/08/2013)

1) “The recommendations of the second ARC on reforming the civil service are radical yet implementable”. Examine.

 2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.

3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.(100 words)

RESPONSES:

  1. Vicky ….
    4 Votes

     

    1) “The recommendations of the second ARC on reforming the civil service are radical yet implementable”. Examine.
    Answer:
    The mandate of ARC II was to analyze the functioning of the administrative system of the country and give suggestions, by studying various other bodies across the globe , to make the civil services effective, efficient and tune to 21st century.
    The report suggests that there must be national institutions which provide specialised bridge courses on public administration apart from setting up IIPA’s throughout the country on the pattern of IIT’s which would provide bachelor’s degree in public administration. And for eligibility to civil services, one would require a degree from such institutes. This reform will give specialised attention to quality education in public administration, for every civil servant aspirant, as a civil servant requires a thorough understanding of public administration. This reform is very much radical because setting up such institute with adequate facilities, expertise, personnel, and courses would require considerable time, finance, infrastructure and planning. But this can be brought about gradually and until then the bridge courses can work as an alternative for eligibility.
    Similarly other reforms on permissible age and attempts have been suggested as 21-25 yrs and 3 attempts for General category, 21-28 yrs and 5 attempts for OBC category, 21-29 yrs and 6 attempts for SC/ST/PH category. This reform would assure that the social cost of examination is not too high as it is the case now , because candidates from reserved categories tend to give examinations repeatedly until they are short of attempts. This need to be curtailed and ensured the only sufficient and required chances are given. One implication of this reform would be the disadvantage felt by the existing candidates. Again this feature can be dealt be ensuring that present candidates are given their earlier promised chances and the reform can be brought out gradually for future candidates by informing them prior in advance.

    Hence we can see that although these reforms are radical but by suitable planning and will, can be implemented.

    • Vicky ….
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      Guys please give comments .. do not just vote.

    • athi
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      good answer vicky

      • Evika
        1 Vote

         

        M yet to read 2nd ARC reports. So, as for the structure of the answer, I found it simple and informative. You took two points and explained them well.
        Don’t you think UPSC is already working on Bachelor in Pub Ad? Of course a degree has not been mandated yet, but 2 GS papers(GS-II and GS-IV) covers a large portion of the subject(excluding the thinkers part)?

  2. Evika
    7 Votes

     

    Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.

    A distinction between monetary and fiscal policy needs to be made. Monetary policy is an instrument of the nation’s central bank or RBI to influence the supply of money and interest rate in an economy. RBI carries it out by setting the Repo rate, SLR and CRR. As the RBI is an independent body, the Finance Ministry can do little to influence monetary policies. For example, inspite of the government officials making public statements for lowering interest rates, RBI is slow to act on it.
    Fiscal policy deals with taxation and expenditure and is designed and implemented by the Union government. It is an important constituent of the economic framework of a country and influences the monetary policies as well. For example, if the government spends more than it receives, it runs a deficit. To meet additional expenditures, it needs to borrow from domestic or foreign sources. So it either runs into a debt crisis or results in higher interest rates. And if an equivalent amount of money is printed, it leads to inflation.
    The Finance Ministry has four departments which collectively deal with preparation of the Union Budget annually, which the Finance Minister presents in the Parliament, implementing recommendations of Finance Commissions, looking into matters related to levy and collection of taxes, pension reforms and policies related to MSMEs. The role played by the Minister helped India weather out of the 2008 global crisis through effective implementation of fiscal stimulus and in 2009-10 through fiscal consolidation. Presently, it is focusing on expenditure reforms like curbing not-so-useful subsidies and tax reforms like proposing DTC and GST.

  3. RV
    2 Votes

     

    The Second Administrative Reforms Commission constituted by the Government of India under the chairmanship of Mr. Verappa Moily was designated the task of presenting a plan of action to restructure the public administration system. The committee has done exemplary work and provided holistic views on its mandate to evolve an efficient, accountable and proactive public services.

    The Committee ascertained the reasons for the growing brazen attitude of the bureaucracy and their loss of contact with the ground realities of the teeming millions. In this regard it has stressed on the essence of ethics and values that should be enforced by heads of individual departments . Integrity, probity ,impartiality , objectivity ,dedication and empathy if incorporated into the services the elitist , self-opiniated ,reclusive image of the bureaucracy will be reformed to be one of dedicated “servants of society”.

    Adopting a pragmatic approach Commmittee seeks to establish a middle path between the “contractual obligation” and “ life long permanency” by recommending reviews at 14th and 20th year of service which will determine continuation or removal from service on the basis of performance . This very fundamental step of performance evaluation will remove the mediocracy and leniency and replace it with meritocracy and efficiency.

    Taking an honest view on the political-bureacracy nexus and the subjection of honest officers to near mendicancy by the corrupt bosses the establishment of Central Civil Services Authority will provide the necessary environment to work without fear and favour . The collegium system of appointed to higher posts, security of tenure would help remove the rotten system who fawning and flattery has replaced empathy and purposeful work for the masses.

    These recommendations if implemented will raise the civil services to its rightful stature of being the dedicated servants of the masses instead of caged parrots to their political masters.

    • Rate This Response!

       

      Hi RV, In my view, you have not answered the question. The question which you have answered is- “Analyze the salient features of 2nd ARC reforms on civil services.”

  4. ekta
    3 Votes

     

    3. Ethnic conflicts in South Asia. (100 words)

    South Asia is one of the most populous regions of the world and accomodates various religions and ethnic communities. From the ancient times, due to the lack of physical barrier and the absence of proper nation states, there was influx as well as outflux of people of different ethnicity.

    So in the modern times, South asian countries present a picture of hetrogenous societies. Also, all of these are developing countries and are less tolerant in terms of religion, giving frequent rise to ethnic conflicts. For example, conflicts between muslims and hindus in India, shia-sunni muslim conflict in Pakistan, etc. Unlike European countries and like West Asia , South Asia failed to evolve as a security community.

  5. RV
    3 Votes

     

    Sharing a common cultural bond due to the colonial period the countries of South Asia had always amassed great pride on accounts of their multi-ethnic diversity.
    The Rohingyar Muslims – Buddhist conflict in Myanmar , Uighur violence in Xinjiang , Muslim killings in the heart of Colombo and Tamil protests show the transformed boiling pot of ethnic conflicts the region has become.

    On many accounts it is due to the rising aspirations of the minorities to restructure the social , political and economic division of power in the respective countries. However the arsonists of democratic principles have taken refuge behind majoritarianism and have subjected them to subjugation through violence , flouting of agreements and constitutional norms thereby aggravating the situation.

  6. 4 Votes

     

    2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.

    Monetary and fiscal policy of a nation decides its present and future scenario of economy which ultimately influences the society and its position in international politics. In India, fiscal policy is designed and implemented by Finance Ministry but monetary policy is regulated by central bank, RBI. But indirectly monetary policy also influenced by finance ministry.

    Fiscal policy is related with revenue and expenditure. It is the responsibility of finance ministry to finance the central govt. in its financial commitments i.e revenue expenditure, consumptive and committed in nature and capital account expenditure or asset building and its other developmental work. Every year it makes budget which is tabled in Parliament by finance minister for its approval. Through budget, it decides source of income for Govt. and what item and business is to be taxed and how much. It gives the detail account of consumption and expenditure for the previous financial year and estimates the same for current year and the same for next financial year.

    When Govt. runs in economic crisis or goes through current account deficit, it is the nodal agency that comes forth to rescue. Through issuance of bond, liberalising or tightening the economic policy, regulating investment limit and policy for domestic and foreign investors. Through these measures it indirectly regulate the monetary policy with the help of RBI.

    At present, post world economic crisis, the responsibility and importance of finance ministry has increased drastically and specially when Indian economy showing a good trend during crisis, plunged into a widening CAD and sliding rupee fall touching to its ever low limit. Finance Ministry has taken necessary steps to handle the situation like increasing custom duty on gold and non-necessary items, interest on foreign currency non-resident account liberalized, norms for external commercial borrowings eased, restriction on overseas direct investment transaction by Indian resident limited. But it seems more to be done to address the issue.

  7. 3 Votes

     

    2) Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.
    Ans
    Monetary policy and fiscal policy are the main components of an economy which deals with supply of credit in the market and revenue, expenditure part of government respectively. In India the former is the prerogative of the central bank while latter is obligation of finance ministry. The government does not directly implement and design monetary policy but its fiscal policy has bearing on monetary policy.
    The role of finance ministry is dynamic when it comes to fiscal policy. It has to balance the revenue and expenditure part i.e. the budget in a prudent manner, failure of which can sent shockwaves throughout the economy. It charts out the road map of budgetary planning and allocation towards various welfare schemes in order to spur demand in case of slowdown. The policy with regard to taxation needs to pragmatic so that it does not erode away the savings and consequently investment. Other macro-economic roles include phased disinvestment, sustainable borrowing, and fund allocation for capital asset creation etc. These roles must be implemented looking into the demands of the market, external factors and that do not hurt investors sentiments leading to their crowding out.

    On the monetary front, the finance ministry works hand in hand with RBI but the latter is relatively autonomous from the government. The decision of government to borrow from the market and banks may impact the policy of the central bank. The excessive borrowing by the government may lead to liquidity crunch and escalate prices which can be controlled by central bank through fiscal measures.
    Hence FM is main institution for formulation of fiscal policy but has least role in monetary policy formulation and only affects the latter during the course of its action

    • athi
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      very good answer sahil…..

      • Rate This Response!

         

        subject and choice of words both are good.

        • Rate This Response!

           

          sahil kindly comment where I am lagging.

          • Rate This Response!

             

            Thank you Sahil for your valuable comment.

            • Rate This Response!

               

              Sahil you written “The excessive borrowing by the government may lead to liquidity crunch and escalate prices “. But I think liquidity crunch leads to deflation.Sorry if I am wrong but kindly correct me.

              • Rate This Response!

                 

                You are right
                but i talking about that in context of monetary policy(3rd paragraph is strictly with how govt. policy affect monetary policy). Government borrowing from the banking sector contributes to an excessive rate of monetary growth, it will have inflationary implications.The funds will be available to corporates at higher rate of interest. Further, government borrows in order to spur demand that will lead to inflation(demand pull inflation). I am not comparing liquidity crunch and price rise. both are the effect of the aforesaid cause when you talk about monetary policy

                There are some typing mistakes in my answer. third paragraph, last line. it would be monetary measures against fiscal measures.

  8. tushar
    1 Vote

     

    2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.

    Fiscal policies, which deal with the subjects of expenditure and taxation, are designed and implemented by the Ministry of Finance. These include tax policy, expenditure policy, disinvestment policy and management of public debt and surplus.

    One of the important functions of the Finance ministry is to preapre an Annual Financial Statement (Union Budget) and place it before the parliament. The budget contains the estimated revenues and expenditures for the given financial year. It contains a broad
    blueprint of the welfare and developmemt schemes of the government. It also presents demand for grants for each ministry.

    Another important aspect of fisal policy deals with tax management. The finance ministry is responsible for designing and implementing tax policies and also initiating reforms. The propoasal for Direct tax Code and Goods and Service Tax(GST) are recent proposals for tax reforms.

    Thirdly, finance ministry has to manage public debt and also ensure that the fiscal deficit remains in acceptable limits. The enactment of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 is a step in this regard.

    Fourthly, the fisal policy also includes disinvestment policy of the government. The Department of Disinvestment in Finance Ministry plans disinvestment strategy for the various public sector units. The formation of National Investment Fund was a part of the new Disinvestment Policy.

    Lastly, thought the monetary policies are framed by RBI, Finance ministry has an indirect impact on them. The fiscal policies, may have impact on inflation and foreign reserves of the country. Hence, the fiscal policies are framed keeping the monetary policy in mind.

  9. Anjali Motghare
    1 Vote

     

    Fiscal policy deals with management of taxation and expenditure of
    govt of India, while monetary policy deals with the supply of
    money and the rate of interest. Fiscal policy and Monetary Policy
    has been dealt separately by Ministry of Finance and RBI respectively.

    Fiscal policy sets economic trends and influences monetary policy.It is
    composed of several parts which are tax policy, expenditure policy,
    investment or disinvestment strategies and debt or surplus management.

    Important role of Fin Min is Budget preparation, through which financial
    activity of govt is managed. If govt running on fiscal deficit, then it decides on various options available with it.It can raise rate of taxes, can borrow from external institutions like IMF, WB, or other countries or raise money domestically by issuing bond, treasury bills, or print new money or can disinvest govt shares in PSU.

    In case of adverse financial crisis it uses various tools, like banning
    export of food items, hiking import duties on elements which lead to CAD, deregulation of prices of petroleum products, increasing custom duties and services taxes and the like.

    If Fin Min manages fiscal deficit well then monetary policy runs well. RBI
    keeps money supply intact in market which help in growth of businesses
    External investors invest in country resulting in capital growth which in
    turn allows govt spend on development project. If reverse happens, RBI restricts money supply by increasing interest rates, business stagnates,investors pulls out their money and financial crisis worsens and leads to recession.

    We are running on high fiscal deficit so in budget of 12-13 Fin Minister
    levied surcharged on super rich and cut down expenditure. In other measures to cut down the subsidy burden it deregulated petrol and diesel prices, reduced number of subsidised LPG cylinder. It hiked gold duty recently to save CAD from further widening.

    Though Fin Min taken necessary steps but still problem persists in the form of rupee depreciation so Fin Min has to implement drastic measures such as control Fiscal Deficit under given target by reducing govt expenditure, control CAD by promoting exports, and ending policy paralysis will boost investors confidence.

  10. 3 Votes

     

    1) “The recommendations of the second ARC on reforming the civil service are radical yet implementable”. Examine.
    Ans
    ARC setup by the government came out with comprehensive report dealing with reforms in civil service. Its recommendations seeks to overhaul the current system in a pragmatic and fundamental manner by providing inter alia, constitutional protection to civil servants, establishing institutional framework for providing excellence in administrative, changing the criteria of selection, periodic training, Performance management system and awards, increasing accountability through intensive review , fixing tenures etc.
    Most of these recommendations are fundamental in nature, which has long been ignored. The growing interference by the political executive regarding transfers of civil servants has led to paralysis during the policy implementation stage. ARC provides for fixed tenure. It has long been argued that most of the servants turn to corruption and maintain status quo because of lack of incentives and appraisal from the government. In addition there is no provision for periodic training during the tenure which can make them sensitize about the issues and increase their vigor. ARC report seeks to correct it by various dynamic recommendations.
    Other basic recommendation with regard to selection criteria are also on table that will cut down chances and age for appearing in the recruitment process. It also recommends institutional mechanism through different courses on public administration that will balance the knowledge of a civil servant in this sphere. It calls upon the government to review the performance of a civil servant through two stage process that will held him/her accountable about the roles performed and goals achieved.
    As civil services have been treated as a steel frame riddled with red tapeism, favouritism, nepotism and arena of political interference coupled with corruption and lack of innovation, ARC proposals are very basic in nature and can be implemented swiftly without much conflict of interest.

    • Evika
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      U have included many points. But I fail to get how it answers this question. If u r saying that these ‘recommendations are fundamental in nature and long postponed’, it negates they being radical in nature. Nowhere in your answer u mentioned how these reforms go against the status quo.

      • Rate This Response!

         

        What is meaning of radical? i think fundamental. search on net- fundamental and basic nature.
        These reforms try to incentivize the officers through performance, fixed tenure, less political interference, periodic review etc.

        • Vicky ….
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          Sahil you are not suggesting ways through which these reforms, which are radical in nature acc. to our status quo, can be implementable.
          I agree with your first paragraph, those fundamental aspects like tenures and reviews can be included easily .. But u need to justify how the reforms which you have mention in the last paragraph can be implementable ….The main question is HOW ?
          ,

          • Rate This Response!

             

            the question is examine. the question itself says that they are implementable. HOW can never be the answer to this question. It is a kind of analyses.

            • Vicky ….
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              My friend you are claiming in the last line that they are basic and can be done swiftly… if that is the case then the essence of radical character does not come into question….
              You should have supported by giving 1 or 2 ideas like they could be implemented gradually or something like that..

              • 1 Vote

                 

                @ vicky
                ok…i will look into it…thank you for pointing out. there is political inertia on fixed tenure and other measures. politicians donot want to lose their clout over the bureaucracy. They want bureaucracy to be mere a cog in their hands.

        • Anjali Motghare
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          Sahil Radical one meaning is far beyond norm, I think In this question this meaning is used. Insights please clear it and my other
          question is what point exactly have to include in examine type question.

  11. tushar
    2 Votes

     

    1) “The recommendations of the second ARC on reforming the civil service are radical yet implementable”. Examine.

    The second ARC suggested certain recommendations for the reform of civil services in India and bring efficiency in the personnel. The recommendations deal with various aspects like entrance exams, capacity building, performance management, legal framework
    defining service conditions etc. Most of these recommendations pose serious challenge to the status quo existing currently and thus have been termed radical by some.

    It gives special attention to training both at the time of induction as well
    as during the time of promotion. It recommends that the completion of training be made compulsory before granting of promotion. Lack of training has been a major reason for sub standard performance by a lot of civil servants in the past.

    The ARC also recommends changes in performance review and calls for two reviews after 14 and 20 years of service. Those civil servants who are found to be unfit after 20 years will be forced to quit. This step though quite radical ensures that the civil servants remain productive throughout their service. this approach has been in practice in most of the MNCs and thus is conveniently implementable.

    The recommendation of Central Civil Services Authority is also a very novel step. It deals with assigning domain to the civil servants based on their potential and aptitude and also take care of the transfer and tenure. This is a step to reduce politicization of bureacracy and provide sucrity of tenure to the civil servants.

    The recommendations suggested by the ARC are certainly radical as they try to bring fundamental changes to an already established system. Any reform trying to change the existing framework will be termed as radical. However, the changing global conditions have made various countries like UK, New Zealand, USA to make changes in their bureaucracy to suit the existing needs. India also needs to make required modifications. What is required is a strong political will.

  12. 4 Votes

     

    1) “The recommendations of the second ARC on reforming the civil service are radical yet implementable”. Examine.

    Ans- Second ARC has given several recommendations for improvement in the civil services. These recommendations cover many dimensions ranging from recruitment, training, deputations to performance appraisals. Some of them are radical in nature, application of which will invite big changes in the service. The viability of some of them have been discussed under-

    First is the change in eligibility criteria for the CSE. Either the student has to be graduate from proposed NIPA or he/she should have done a ‘bridge course’ after doing graduation in other disciplines. This will augment the competition- first for admission in NIPA & then for CSE. But the clause of scholarship & eligibility for all public & private sector jobs increases its applicability.
    Second is the change in age-limit & number of attempts. While such a radical change may invite protests from older aspirants, yet it will bring efficiency in the whole process by reducing the number of repeaters & giving chances to new aspirants.
    Third is the creation of central civil services authority. It will be responsible for appraisal, deputations of senior civil servants & will also submit annual report to parliament. It will help in reducing the political interference in senior bureaucracy. By clearly specifying the constitution of authority, it will be transparent.

    These & many other recommendations are vying for big changes in the system which can be said as radical but as far as their implement-ability is concerned, there seems no reason to reject them. Neither it requires huge investments nor it requires complete overhaul of system. Gradual changes will take a long time to show their effect & civil services being the life line of indian political system can’t afford the luxury of such sluggishness.

    • Vicky ….
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      Good answer saagar . you have kept upto the expectation of the question.
      Please check my answer also .

  13. 2 Votes

     

    2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.

    Ans- Under government of India, ministry of finance holds many important responsibilities of budgeting, financial policy making, managing financial institutions etc. The financial policy making can broadly be classified into two heads- fiscal & monetary policy formulation.

    Fiscal policy making is concerned with the methods government adopts to control & regulate the financial position of the country. This is achieved by the ministry using its departments- Deptt. of economic affairs, Deptt. of revenue & Deptt. of expenditure. Apart from these, a comparatively new deptt. is the deptt. of disinvestment which regulates the disinvestment of PSUs thereby controlling financial resources of India. DoEF is responsible for budget making & hence it becomes the most important organ of ministry which helps in fiscal policy formulation. Using budget, ministry exercises its control on the financial resources of country.Apart from that, formulating macroeconomic policies, regulating currency & monitoring of external resources lies under its control too. The expenditure done by govt. & the revenues recieved by it are monitored by DoE & DoR.

    Monetary policy formulation is connected to the deptt. of financial services. It looks after banking & other financial services like pension, insurance etc. But moentary policy formulation can’t be attributed to fin. min. since it is mainly done by RBI. Monetary policy is, in fact, defined as to be done by the central bank. It is done using control of repo rate, reverse repo rate, bank rate etc which remains out of purview of ministry.

    So, as a conclusion we can say that ministry plays very important role in formulation of fiscal policies, but it has almost no role to play as far as monetary policy is concerned which makes our financial system more robust & efficient.

  14. vipul
    1 Vote

     

    Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.(100 words)
    South Asia consists of mainly India,Bangladesh,Sri Lanka,Pakistan,Nepal,Afganistan. Almost all these nations are currently facing acute Ethnic conflicts.Reason of conflicts includes historic factors,political aspirations,development factors,ethnicity itself.Ethnic conflicts have put enormous challenges in front of almost all the ruling governments in South Asia.

    In India,Hindu-Muslim ethnics conflicts is the most critical one.It has its roots in historical factors.Hindu-Sikh conflicts took origin in 1980s and led to widespread riots.There are other ethnic conflicts based on language, castes prevalent in many parts of India .In Sri-Lanka,Tamilian issue is world known.Tamil dominated northern region had seen an armed struggle against the Government which continued for nearly 3 decades.In Pakistan,inter tribal,Shia-Sunni &pathan-mujahir conflicts dominates the ethnic conflicts.In last few years,minority Shia population has been the main target of bomb attacks in Pakistan.In Bangladesh ,there have been incidents of conflicts between begali speaking population and indigenous communities including Chakma,marma,tripua etc.In Nepal the he Madhesi and Pahade communities have often been involved in communal tensions fueled by ethnic-based political groups

  15. vipul
    2 Votes

     

    Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.
    Fiscal policy covers the taxation & expenditure related decisions while the Monetary policy deals with the supply of money in an economy & the rate of interest.Generally in India,Government (Ministry of Finance) deals with the fiscal policy and central bank (RBI) deals with the monetary policies.In an economy,Fiscal & monetary policy influences each other.Fiscal policy consists of several measures like tax policy,expenditure policy,investment or divestment policies& debt management.

    Ministry of finance consists of five department.Role of each department in designing & implementing the fiscal policies is as under:

    Department of Economic affairs
    DOEA undertakes the responsibility of foreign exchange management,foreign aid and investments,preparation of budget & controls ofinstruments of domestic finance.Department also undertakes the administration of FRBMA to restrict the overall fiscal deficit & government debt to a manageable level.

    Department of Revenue
    CBDT (Central Board of Direct Taxes) is a Division of the Ministry which deals with matters relating to levy and collection of direct taxes. CBEC (Central borard of excise and customs)formulates the policies concerning levy and collection of Customs & Central Excise duties and Service Tax etc.

    Department of expenditure
    DOE oversees the expenditures in the central government and the other matters connected with the state finances.DOE undertakes the release of central assistance to state annual plans & Other grants approved by Finance commission.It also appraises and approves the investment/expenditure proposals of central ministries.

    Department of divestment
    DOD deals with all matters related to divestment of central government equity from CPSU.Department also forms policies in regards to the utilization of Funds which are channelized in to National Investment Fund.

    • 1 Vote

       

      @ VIPUL
      read the question again. U enumerated the functions of various department. u have to examine.

      • PB
        Rate This Response!

         

        I feel it is a Good answer.
        @Sahil,
        I think that enumeration is fine as long as you are sticking to what is asked in the question in each of the enumerated points.
        PB

  16. PB
    2 Votes

     

    South Asia, which is one of the most heterogeneous region in the world is also is the place of violent Ethnic Conflicts.
    In India, these violent conflicts are numerous. Starting from the Hindu Muslim conflicts in the Pre-Independence period resulting in Communal riots is perhaps the most bloodies example of the conflicts. Post Independence the Bodoland (Assam) conflict, Gorkhaland Conflict(West Bengal) , Sikkim (to fight against the Chogyal) , the Sikh terrorism to make Punjab a separate autonomous state and the recent example of Telangana movement to create a separate state for Telnagana people are few examples.
    Similarly in China, the Muslim dominated Xinxiang province, the protest to fight for the rights often leads to fight against Han Community of China which occupies the important positions in the Govt. Very similar is the case in the Myanmar where Rohingya Muslims are fighting against the Buddhists govt to get the autonomy.
    In Sri Lanka, where the majority population of Sinhalese dominated over the Tamils, to fight for the rights of the Tamil minority and to get the autonomy, the violent conflicts between Sinhalese dominated govt and LTTE is another example of the numerous ethnic conflicts of South Asia.

  17. Shweta
    1 Vote

     

    2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies

    For an economy to sustain a sound and stable growth it is imperative to have clearly articulated macroeconomic policy framework. In India the task is entrusted to the Ministry of Finance which lays down the broad contours of the fiscal policy while the monetary policy is mainly the handiwork of India’s Central bank, RBI.

    Fiscal policy, for that matter, deals with the aspects of revenue generation and expenditure and therefore is responsible for the debt/surplus situation of a country.The Economic affairs department in the ministry is the nodal agency for formulation of fiscal policy keeping in view the changing domestic and international scenario. Its primary task is the preparation of Annual Union budget which enunciates the sources of internal revenue (taxation programme, maket borowings, mobilisation of small savings) and heads of expenditure in a given year. It also looks after the functioning of capital markets, stock exchanges and raising of external resources via concessional loans and ODA and debt/surplus management.The departments of revenue and expenditure are responsible for implementation of these policies while department of disinvestment deals with the investment/disinvestment strategies.

    Monetary policy on the other hand deals with the supply of money and credit formulation in an economy. RBI while laying down monetary policy works hand-in-hand with the ministry of finance, but is more or less independent in its functioning. It focusses on achievement of growth with stability while ensuring stable supply of credit, control on inflation and check on currency volatility. It is the insulation of monetary policy from the political influence/ government which ensures functioning of a stable n strong banking system in the country.

  18. Shweta
    1 Vote

     

    3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.

    Besides having a long and shared history of colonial domination, ethnically diverse societies and under-developed economies, most of the South Asian counties have also had instances of inter-ethnic conflicts plaguing their social lives.These conflicts have often taken the form of genocidal wars, mass killings, rapes, tortures, violent clashes, communal riots etc.
    The causes of conflict are varied and include alleged encroachment over rights and resources of a minority community by the majority, religious intolerance, differences in economic status of the two groups. Often the differences have been perpetuated exploited by the political classes for electoral gains.
    The Eelam war (Tamils vs Sinhalese) in Sri Lanka, Sunni-Shia clashes in Pakistan, Buddhist-Muslims clashes in India, Bangladesh, Hindu-Muslim conflicts in India taken huge toll of lives in these countries over decades. Besides loss of human resources, the clashes also act as a drain on economic resources of the counties and pose a hindrance to the sound development of their economies.

  19. lrlevin
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    3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.(100 words)

    Ethnic conflicts, today have become an intrinsic phenomenon in multi-ethnic regions. South Asia, being one among them is not devoid of it. The major reasons for such conflicts are declining mutual tolerance among people, increasing socio-economic and political aspirations, politicization of ethnicity, sharpening ethnic consciousness, etc.

    Recently such conflicts popped out as Rohingya Muslim-Buddhist conflict in Bangladesh and Myanmar, Bodos-Muslims conflict in Assam, Tamil-Sinhala conflict and Muslim-Buddhist conflict in Srilanka, Shia-Sunni conflict in Pakistan, etc.

    Ethnic conflicts inherently are detrimental to social fabric of a state. Therefore, there is an urgent need to avoid such conflicts through policy interventions, inducing cooperation and tolerance, providing distributive justice and bring awareness among people.

  20. phani
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    2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policie
    The finance ministry at the center is entrusted with the task of supervising the overall financial health of the country as a whole. In doing so, it draws its powers from the FRBM act. There are two very important policies which govern the financial soundness of any country .they are monetary and fiscal policies. The mismanagement of the either of the two will lead to a precarious situation which may hinder growth and development and infuse negative investor sentiment in an economy.
    Monetary policy is determined by RBI, basically concerned with the money flow in the economy and in reigning in inflation by making necessary adjustments using its liquidity adjustment tools like the repo rate , reverse repo rate , MSF , CRR etc. the finance ministry can only ask the RBI to take a necessary policy decision but can’t dictate the terms.
    The finance ministry’s main prerogative is to form a sound fiscal policy to deal with the receipts of money through various taxes and levies and allocating them under the head of expenditures both revenue and capital according to the policies of the government on the day by assessing the overall scenario of the economy. Balance of receipts and expenditures will lead to either deficit or surplus. How to manage the deficit or utilize the surplus are all decisions taken under the aegis of the finance ministry. The FRBM act has made it the nodal agency and put some restrictions on the current account deficit figures as to inculcate a good financial managing culture.
    Though the two policies look different, they are the twin tires on which the economy must move. In a developing country like india , growth is always associated with inflation both must go in a synchronous way to reach a stable and equitable distribution of resources

    3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.

    Ethnicity is the feeling of being different , either culturally , socially and a distinctiveness a group of people feel than the majority. South asia is a museum of various cultures and ethnicities. One of the main reasons for the backwardness of SA is the ongoing conflict of interests among various groups inhabiting a common territory. Be it hindu-muslim-christian conflicts,nagas and kukis revolts, bodos,gorkhas emancipation and revolts for political p0wer and in india , rohingya muslims issues in china and mayanmar., Sinhala and tamil conflicts in sri lanka, conflicts in Philippines among various groups , revolts of balooch groups in Pakistan , issues among the thai and combodians regarding the angorvat temple all are various socio political conflicts plaguing south asia which have to be dealt with firmly to see SA as an emerging leader on the world map.

  21. GUDDU
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    Ethnic conflicts in South Asia

    The nations in South asia represent the colonial legacy as the boundaries created are not natural and not on the basis of choice of the indigenous people rather has been created for perpetuation of colonialism, despite a common heritage and cultural assimilation the colonial policies of divide and rule has led to the ethnic conflicts in the region. The introduction of mass democracies in the parochial societies has added fuel to the fire. The country of Pakistan and Sri lanka has been the worst sufferers of the ethnic conflicts. The ethnic conflicts in contemporary time is a fallout of backwardness of the society, preferential policies of state and domination of one section over the rest.

  22. sai
    2 Votes

     

    3.ethnic conflicts in South Asia
    Ethnic conflicts are the conflicts between two ethnic groups. There are economic, religious, political and cultural reasons for such conflicts. Emergence of modern nation-states brought different ‘nations’ under one state. And with marginalisation of one group either by state or by other group conflicts are bound to happen.

    south asia being more diverse there are many ethnic conflicts occur. The issue of Sinhala-Tamil in srilanka, Clashes between Rohingyas and Buddhists In Myanmar, clashes between Bodos and Muslims in Assam, nagas and kukis in Nagaland are some examples

    In the wake of globalisation and liberalisation as inequality is increasing and as people are losing their identities there is urgent need to address the issue of ethnic conflicts. Of the available approaches (assimilation, integration and isolation) integrationist approach would make these ethnic groups secure and make them part of the development.

  23. athi
    2 Votes

     

    South asian countries have a wide range of religious,cultural and ethical diversity.It makes this region a centre of ethnic conflicts also.
    In India ethnic conflicts are common in north eastern states,Punjab etc.Different tribes are there in north east.They frequently creates cultural , political and military issues.In srilanka a violent conflict undergone between simhalas and tamils.After effects of this conflict does not subside yet. Karens, Shans,and Rohingyas conflicts in Myanmar,shiya sunni conflict in Pakistan are examples of other ethnic clashes.
    Discrimination,oppression and insecurity are the main causes of these ethnic conflicts.

  24. athi
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    insights,
    please review my answer….please…..

  25. naveen
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    Hello Sahil,
    Firstly i should say you write very good answers hence these questions to you:). 1) Where do you get these many points from? source? 2) Do you search on google before answering these questions? 3) If you search from sources then how much time does it take for searching for points and time for writing answers? 4)How long have been your studying for civils?.
    I am just curious as i want some guidance from you on this regard.
    thank you!!!!

  26. ARUN HAZRA
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    please review my answer.

  27. ARUN HAZRA
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    please review friends.

  28. Rate This Response!

     

    Hi naveen.
    Thank you. I do not rely on any source for most of the conventional and general topic relating to subjects. If you have sound understanding of the subjects, then you can write anything and everything. When i have to refer , i go through net ( Google ). Then i do not search points but the complete topic and its background. That will help u answer everything relating to that question.
    1) Read the basic books and clear your doubts regarding the concepts in various sub fields like polity, economics, geography etc
    2) Read newspapers thoroughly and try to write in your own language. Whether one page or half of it. Read editorials of 3 or 4 newspapers, if u can. That will help u gain knowledge and background of recent issues.
    3) Most of the topics talk about basic problems and their solution.
    4) it does not matter how much time it would take ( in the initial stages of preparation), the thing matters is how much have u gained or will u be able to write anything on that topic in any form or any twisted question.
    5) I have been preparing for one and half year. Wide coverage does not matter.

  29. GUDDU
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    hey, kindly review, my 1st answer, looking forward to comments

  30. naveen
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    Thank you for your quick response. Appreciate your help.

  31. phani
    Rate This Response!

     

    2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policie
    The finance ministry at the center is entrusted with the task of supervising the overall financial health of the country as a whole. In doing so, it draws its powers from the FRBM act. There are two very important policies which govern the financial soundness of any country .they are monetary and fiscal policies. The mismanagement of the either of the two will lead to a precarious situation which may hinder growth and development and infuse negative investor sentiment in an economy.
    Monetary policy is determined by RBI, basically concerned with the money flow in the economy and in reigning in inflation by making necessary adjustments using its liquidity adjustment tools like the repo rate , reverse repo rate , MSF , CRR etc. the finance ministry can only ask the RBI to take a necessary policy decision but can’t dictate the terms.
    The finance ministry’s main prerogative is to form a sound fiscal policy to deal with the receipts of money through various taxes and levies and allocating them under the head of expenditures both revenue and capital according to the policies of the government on the day by assessing the overall scenario of the economy. Balance of receipts and expenditures will lead to either deficit or surplus. How to manage the deficit or utilize the surplus are all decisions taken under the aegis of the finance ministry. The FRBM act has made it the nodal agency and put some restrictions on the current account deficit figures as to inculcate a good financial managing culture.
    Though the two policies look different, they are the twin tires on which the economy must move. In a developing country like india , growth is always associated with inflation both must go in a synchronous way to reach a stable and equitable distribution of resources
    3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.
    Ethnicity is the feeling of being different , either culturally , socially and a distinctiveness a group of people feel than the majority. South asia is a museum of various cultures and ethnicities. One of the main reasons for the backwardness of SA is the ongoing conflict of interests among various groups inhabiting a common territory. Be it hindu-muslim-christian conflicts,nagas and kukis revolts, bodos,gorkhas emancipation and revolts for political p0wer and in india , rohingya muslims issues in china and mayanmar., Sinhala and tamil conflicts in sri lanka, conflicts in Philippines among various groups , revolts of balooch groups in Pakistan , issues among the thai and combodians regarding the angorvat temple all are various socio political conflicts plaguing south asia which have to be dealt with firmly to see SA as an emerging leader on the world map.

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